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Full text of "Report of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution and financial report of the Executive Committee of the Board of Regents for the year ending June 30 .."

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Report of the Secretary and the Financial Report 

of the Executive Committee of 

the Board of Regents 





Smithsonian 
Institution 

Report of the Secretary and the Financial Report 

of the Executive Committee of 

The Board of Regents 




For the year ended June 30 
1952 



Smithsonian Publication 4102 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1953 



CONTENTS 



Page 

List of oflScials v 

General statement 1 

The Establishment 4 

The Board of Regents 4 

Finances 5 

Appropriations 5 

Visitors 6 

Nineteenth annual James Arthur lecture on the sun 7 

Hall of naval history 7 

Policing of Smithsonian buildings 7 

Mary Vaux Walcott fund for publications in botany 8 

Summary of the year's activities of the branches of the Institution 8 

Publications 12 

Library 13 

Appendix 1. Report on the United States National Museum 14 

2. Report on the National Gallery of Art 26 

3. Report on the National Collection of Fine Arts 41 

4. Report on the Freer Gallery of Art 48 

5. Report on the Bureau of American Ethnology 56 

6. Report on the International Exchange Service 86 

7. Report on the National Zoological Park 94 

8. Report on the Astrophysical Observatory 130 

9. Report on the National Air Museum 136 

10. Report on the Canal Zone Biological Area 150 

11. Report on the library 158 

12. Report on publications 162 

Report of the executive committee of the Board of Regents 169 

ni 



THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

June 30, 1952 

Presiding Officer ex officio. — Hakry S. Truman, President of the United States. 
Chancellor. — Fred M. Vinson, Chief Justice of the United States. 
Members of the Institution: 

Harry S. Truman, President of the United States. 

Alben W. Barkxey, Vice President of the United States. 

Fred M. Vinson, Chief Justice of the United States. 

Dean C. Acheson, Secretary of State. 

John W. Snyder, Secretary of the Ti-easury. 

George C. Marshall, Secretary of Defense. 

James P. McGranery, Attorney General. 

Jesse M. Donaldson, Postmaster General. 

Oscar Chapman, Secretary of the Interior. 

Charles F. Brannan, Secretary of Agriculture. 

Charles Sawyer, Secretary of Commerce. 

Maurice Tobin, Secretary of Labor. 
Regents of the Institution: 

Fred M. Vinson, Chief Justice of the United States, Chancellor. 

Alben W. Barkley, Vice President of the United States. 

Walter F. George, Member of the Senate. 

Clinton P. Anderson, Member of the Senate. 

Leverett Saltonstall, Member of the Senate. 

Clarence Cannon, Member of the House of Representatives. 

John M. Vorys, Member of the House of Representatives. 

E. E. Cox, Member of the House of Representatives. 

Harvey N. Davis, citizen of New Jersey. 

Arthur H. Compton, citizen of Missouri. 

Vannevar Bush, citizen of Washington, D. C. 

Robert V. Fleming, citizen of Washington, D. C. 

Jerome C. Hunsaker, citizen of Massachusetts. 
Executive Committee. — Robert V. Fleming, chairman, Vannevar Bush, Clar- 
ence Cannon. 
Secretary. — ^Alexander Wetmore, 
Assistant Secretaries. — John E. Graf, J. L. Keddy. 
Administrative assistant to the Secretary. — Mrs. Louise M. Pearson. 
Treasurer. — J. D. Howard. 
Chief, editorial division. — Paul H. Oehser. 
Librarian. — Mrs. Leila F. Clark. 
Chief, accounting division. — Thomas F. Clark, 
Superintendent of buildings and labor. — L. L. Oliver, 
Assistant Superintendent of buildings and l<ibor. — Charles C. Sinclair. 
Chief, personnel division. — Jack B. Newman, 
Chief, publications division. — L. E. Commerford. 
Chief, supply division. — Anthony W. Wilding. 
Photographer. — F. B. Kestner. 

V 



VI ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Director. — A. Remington Kexlogq. 

Chief, office of correspondence and records. — Helena M. Weiss. 

Editor. — John S. Lea. 

scientific staff 

Department of Antheopology : 

Frank M. Setzler, head curator ; A. J. Andrews, J. E. Anglim, exhibits 
preparators ; W. W. Taylor, Jr., collaborator in anthropology. 
Division of Archeology: Waldo R. Wedel, curator; Clifford Evans, Jr., asso- 
ciate curator ; Mrs. M. C. Blaker, museum aide ; J. Townsend Russell, Jr., 
honorary assistant curator of Old World archeology. 
Division of Ethnology: H. W. Krieger, curator; J. C. Ewers, C. M. Watkins, 

associate curators ; R. A. Elder, Jr., assistant curator. 
Division of Physical Anthropology : T. Dale Stewart, curator ; M. T. Newman, 

associate curator. 
Associate in Anthropology : Neil M. Judd. 
Department of Zoology : 

Waldo L. Schmitt, head curator ; W. L. Brown, chief exhibits preparator ; 
C. H. Aschemeier, W. M. Perrygo, E. G. Laybourne, C. E. East, J. D. 
Biggs, exhibits preparators ; Mrs. Aime M. Awl, scientific illustrator. 
Division of Mammals: D. H. Johnson, H. W. Setzer, associate curators; 
Charles O. Handley, Jr., assistant curator ; A. Brazier Howell, collaborator ; 
Gerrit S. Miller, Jr., associate. 
Division of Birds: Herbert Friedmann, curator; H. G. Deignan, associate 
curator, Samuel A. Arny, museum aide ; Alexander Wetmore, custodian of 
alcoholic and skeleton collections ; Arthur C. Bent, collaborator. 
Division of Reptiles and Amphihians : Doris M. Cochran, associate curator. 
Division of Fishes: Leonard P. Schultz, curator; E. A. Lachner, associate 

curator ; W. T. Leapley, Robert H. Kanazawa, museum aides. 
Division of Insects: Edward A. Chapin, curator; R. E. Blackwelder, W. D. 
Field, O. L. Cartwright, Grace E. Glance, associate curators; Sophy 
Parfin, junior entomologist ; W. L. Jellison, collaborator. 

Section of Hymenoptera: W. M. Mann, Robert A. Cushman, assistant 

custodians. 
Section of Diptera : Charles T. Greene, assistant custodian. 
Section of Coleoptera : L. L. Buchanan, specialist for Casey collection. 
Division of Marine Invertebrates: F. A. Chace, Jr., curator; Frederick M. 
Bayer, associate curator; Mrs. L. W. Peterson, museum aide; Mrs. Harriet 
Richardson Searle, Max M. Ellis, J. Percy Moore, collaborators ; Mrs. 
Mildred S. Wilson, collaborator in copepod Crustacea. 
Division of Mollusks: Harald A. Rehder, curator; Joseph P. E. Morrison, 
R. Tucker Abbott, associate curators; W. J. Byas, museum aide; Paul 
Bartsch, associate. 

Section of Helminthological Collections: Benjamin Schwartz, collabo- 
rator. 
Associates in Zoology: T. S. Palmer, W. B. Marshall, A. G. Boving, C. R. 

Shoemaker, W. K. Fisher, Austin H. Clark. 
Collaborator in Zoology : R. S. Clark. 
Collaborator in Biology : D. C. Graham. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT VH 

Depabtment of Botany (National Herbarium) ; 
Jason R. Swallen, head curator. 
Division of Phanerogams: A. C. Smith, curator ; E. C. Leonard, E. H. Walker, 
Lyman B. Smith, associate curators ; Velva E. Rudd, assistant curator ; 

E. P. Killip, research associate. 
Division of Fei'ns: C. V. Morton, curator. 

Division of Grasses: Ernest R. Sohns, associate curator; Mrs. Agnes Chase, 

F. A. McClure, research associates. 

Division of Cryptogams: C. V. Morton, acting curator ; Paul S. Conger, asso- 
ciate curator; John A. Stevenson, custodian of C. G. Lloyd mycological 
collections and honorary curator of Fungi ; David G. Fairchild, custodian 
of Lower Fungi. 
Depabtment of Geology : 

W. F. Foshag, head curator ; J. H. Benn, museum aide ; Jessie G. Beach, 
junior geologist. 
Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: W. F. Foshag, acting curator; E. P. 
Henderson, G. S. Switzer, associate curators; F. E. Holden, museum 
technician ; Frank L. Hess, custodian of rare metals and rare earths. 
Division of Inverteltrate Paleontology and Paleobotany : Gustav A. Cooper, 
curator; A. R. Loeblich, Jr., David Nicol, Arthur L. Bowsher, associate 
curators ; W. T. Allen, museum aide ; J. Brookes Knight, research associate 
in paleontology. 
Section of Invertebrate Paleontology; T. W. Stanton, custodian of 
Mesozoic collection ; J. B. Reeside, Jr., custodian of Mesozoic collec- 
tion ; Preston Cloud, research associate. 
Section of Paleobotany : Roland W. Brown, research associate. 
Division of Yertetrate Paleontology : C. L. Gazin, curator ; D. H. Dunkle, 

associate curator ; F. L. Pearce, A. C. Murray, exhibits preparators. 
Associates in Mineralogy : W. T. Schaller, S. H. Perry, J. P. Marble. 
Associate in Paleontology : R. S. Bassler. 
Depabtment of Engineeeing and Industeies : 
Frank A. Taylor, head curator. 
Division of Engineering: Frank A. Taylor, acting curator ; William H. Dunn, 
Jr., museum aide. 

Section of Civil and Mechanical Engineering : Frank A. Taylor, in charge. 
Section of Marine Transportation : Frank A. Taylor, in charge. 
Section of Electricity : K. M. Perry, associate curator. 
Section of Physical Sciences and Measurement: Frank A. Taylor, in 

charge. 
Section of Land Transportation : S. H. Oliver, associate curator. 
Division of Crafts and Industries: W. N. Watkins, curator; Edward C. Ken- 
dall, associate curator ; E. A. Avery, museum aide ; F. L. Lewton, research 
associate. 

Section of Textiles : Grace L. Rogers, assistant curator. 
Section of Wood Technology : W. N. Watkins, in charge. 
Section of Manufactures : W. N. Watkins, in charge. 
Section of Agricultural Industries : W. N. Watkins, in charge. 
Division of Medicine and Public Health: [Vacancy], associate curator. 
Division of Graphic Arts: J. Kainen, curator ; J. Harry Phillips, Jr., museum 
aide. 

Section of Photography : A. J. Wedderburn, Jr., associate curator. 



Vm ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

Depabtment of History : 

Mendel L. Peterson, acting head curator. 
Divisions of Military History mid Naval History: M. L. Peterson, associate 

curator ; J. R. Sirlouis, assistant curator. 
Division of Civil History: Margaret W. Brown, associate curator. 
Division of Nu77iismatics: S. M. Mosher, associate curator. 
Division of Philately: Franklin R. Bruns, Jr., associate curator. 

NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 
Trustees: 

Fbed M. Vinson, Chief Justice of the United States, Chairman. 

Dean C. Acheson, Secretary of State. 

John W. Snyder, Secretary of the Treasury. 

Alexander Wetmore, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 

Samuel H. Kress. 

Ferdinand Lammot Belin. 

Duncan Phillips. 

Chester Dale. 

Paul Mellon. 
President. — Samuel H. Kress. 
Vice President. — Ferdinand Lammot Belin. 
Secretary-Treasurer. — Huntington Cairns. 
Director. — ^David E. Finley. 
Administrator'. — Harry A. McBride. 
General Counsel. — Huntington Cairns. 
Chief Curator. — John Walker. 
Assistant Director. — Macglll James. 

NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 

Director. — Thomas M. Beggs. 

Curator of ceramics. — P. V, Gardner, 

Chief, Smithsonian Traveling Exliilyition Service. — Mrs. John A. Pope. 

ExhiUts preparators. — G. J. Martin, Rowland Lyon. 

FREER GALLERY OF ART 

Director. — A. G. Wenley. 
Assistant Director. — John A. Pope. 
Assistant to the Director. — Burns A. Stubbs. 
Associate in Near Eastern art. — Richard Ettinghausen. 
Associate in technical research. — Rutherford J. Gettens. 
Assistant in research. — Harold P. Steen. 
Research associate. — Grace Dunham Guest. 
Honorary research associate. — Max Loehr. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT IX 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

Director. — Matthew W. Stirling. 

Associate Director. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. 

Anthropologists. — H. B. Collins, Jr., Philip Druckeb. 

Ethnologist. — John P. Harrington. 

Collaborators. — Frances Densmore, John R. Swanton, A. J. Waring, Jr. 

Scientific illustrator. — E. G. Schumacher. 

Institute of Social Anthropology. — G. M. Foster, Jr., Director. 

River Basin Surveys. — Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., Director. 

INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE SERVICE 

Chief. — D. G. Williams. 

NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 

Director. — William M. Mann. 
Assistant Director. — Ernest P. Walker, 
Head Animal Keeper. — Frank O. Lowe. 

ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

Director. — Loyal B. Aldrich. 
Division of Astrophysical Research : 

Chief. — William H. Hoover. 

Instrument makers. — Andrew Kramer, D. G. Talbert, J, H. Harbison. 

Research associate. — Chables G. Abbot. 
Division of Radiation and Organisms : 

Chief. — R. B. Withrow. 

Plant physiologists. — William H. Klein, Leonard Price, V. B. Elstad, Alice 
P. Withrow. 

NATIONAL AIR MUSEUM 
Advisory Board: 

Alexander Wetmore, Chairman. 

Maj. Gen. Donald L. Putt, V. S. Air Force. 

Rear Adm. T. S. Combs, TJ. S. Navy. 

Grover Loening. 

William B. Stout. 
Head curator. — Paul E. Garber. 
Associate curator. — R. C. Strobell. 
Manager, National Air Museum Facility. — ^W. M. Male. 
Museum aides. — Stanley Potter, Winthrop S. Shaw. 

CANAL ZONE BIOLOGICAL AREA 
Resident Manager. — James Zetek. 



Report of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 

ALEXANDER WETMORE 

For the Year Ended June 30, 1952 

To the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution: 

Gentle]Men : I have the honor to submit herewith my report show- 
ing the activities and condition of the Smithsonian Institution and its 
branches during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1952. 

GENERAL STATEMENT 

The period covered in the present annual report has been one of 
steady and progressive activity along the established lines that have 
become the functions of the Smithsonian Institution as the years 
since its foundation in 1846 have multiplied. Although no additional 
responsibilities have been assumed beyond those entailed by the 
steady increase in the national collections of history, science, and 
art, in visitors to the public exhibitions, and in requests for infor- 
mation and other assistance, there has been much consideration and 
effort given to improvement in methods of operation and to better 
coordination of our affairs. Having held administrative positions 
concerned with the direction of the Smithsonian Institution since 
1925, first as Assistant Secretary, and since 1945 as Secretary, I find 
it of interest to examine the current status of the Institution and 
its position at the present time, when I have requested release from 
these responsibilities in order to be free for the scientific investigations 
that have been a major activity throughout my life. 

It should be stated clearly that whatever has been accomplished in 
betterment in the Institution during this period of years has been 
due to the combined interest and devotion of all the Institution's per- 
sonnel and not to the work of any one individual alone. The staff of 
the Smithsonian throughout its modern history has been the dynamic 
part of the organization, in contrast to the material holdings of land, 
buildings, and collections that form its possessions. The staff, while 
constantly changing in individual members, in its entirety has been 
the firm foundation of the structure. The varied forces exerted in 
this staff form a steadily flowing stream of effort whose force and 
direction have changed from decade to decade, but whose impetus as a 
whole does not slacken. It is this working group that is the heart 



2 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 2 

of the Smithsonian Institution at any given moment in its operations. 
In my quarter-century and more with the Smithsonian it has been 
repeatedly impressed upon me that it has been the loyalty and spirit 
and abilities of these workers that have helped most to achieve the In- 
stitution's prime purpose — "the increase and diffusion of knowledge 
among men." 

The original endowment fund received under the will of James 
Smithson, with several later additions, is held in the United States 
Treasury as a permanent trust and stands as official recognition of the 
position held by the Smithsonian in relation to our Nation. The 
Institution has deep and increasing pride in its position as guardian 
of historical and scientific treasures that belong to all who now are 
citizens of our country and that, equally, belong to the generations 
of the future. It is our great responsibility to maintain these hold- 
ings safely, to investigate and make known their values for the public 
good, and to add to them in those ways that will enhance their worth 
for the increase of knowledge. This responsibility is particularly 
acute in times of national emergency, as during World War II or at 
the present time when many peacetime activities must give place in 
the Federal budget to matters of national defense. Smithsonian 
administrators would not be faithful to their trust if even during 
such periods they relaxed in their efforts to assure adequate support 
through public funds for safeguarding and preserving for future 
generations the treasures entrusted to them by the American people. 

Growth in the responsibilities of the Smithsonian since 1925 may be 
better understood when it is known that the collections in its charge 
have more than doubled during that time, while their value has 
increased in even greater degree because they include so many 
thousands of unique objects. It is not practicable to place a definite 
monetary value on all these things, since for most there is no true 
market in the sense of ordinary barter and sale. For many, partic- 
ularly in the historical field, no real price in dollars may be set, as 
their actual worth — for example, the relics of Washington, Jeffer- 
son, and other national heroes — lies in the patriotic sentiment in which 
they are held. It is sufficient to say that the more than 33,000,000 
catalog entries now found in these collections may be valued at upward 
of a billion dollars, but with the further explanation that no sum of 
money, regardless of how great it might be, could ever replace these 
materials should damage come to them. 

Many shifts and changes in our administrative alignment have been 
made for improvement in procedures, for more efficient assignment of 
staff, and for better utilization of the space available to us for housing. 
The result has been an increased efficiency without which we would not 
be able to meet the demands now laid upon us. The scope of all 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 3 

Smithsonian bureaus and their constituent units is now described in 
a detailed account of the work of the Institution, prepared in January 
1951, which includes a survey of the duties and responsibilities that 
pertain to each. 

Present needs of the Smithsonian remain those that have been of 
perennial pressure, namely, additional personnel, increased space for 
housing, and further support for operation. All require funds if they 
are to be adequately met. Through increased pay, necessary and 
greatly deserved under present-day living costs, and through changes 
in work hours, the annual payroll of the Institution has more than 
doubled in the past 20 years. At the same time the available man 
hours of service per week now actually are less. In 1942 we had 
20,592 man hours available. For the same service now in 1952 (with 
greatly increased work load) we may command only 20,200 man hours. 
This situation is one that needs remedy without delay, or the Institu- 
tion will lag decidedly in its required duties and in its services to our 
people. 

As for space, through careful planning we are now utilizing fully 
all that is available to us. Additional buildings for the United States 
National Museum and the National Air Museum, for the collections in 
art, and for our research operations in natural history and other fields 
are essential whenever funds may be provided. For a number of years 
it has become increasingly important that a research center of consid- 
erable size be built in the area outside of but reasonably near Metro- 
politan Washington, to which the study collections of the National 
Museum might be removed and where laboratory space would be avail- 
able for our scientists. The present buildings in the Mall area would 
then be accessible to the public to be used wholly for exhibition. The 
research area should be arranged to provide storage for the most im- 
portant objects in the exhibition series, should threat of war demand 
their removal to safety. It will be a great day in the history of the 
Smithsonian and in the history of American science when plans for 
these buildings materialize. They have been the dream of many who 
believe that the Smithsonian Institution is one of the great American 
traditions that not only must be preserved but must be accorded the 
physical facilities to meet its obligations of leadership in this modern 
age of science. 

Through the income of its endowments the Smithsonian has a per- 
manence in parts of its operation that it may maintain in no other 
way. Its activities under most of its endowment funds are now far 
too modest, since only in a few instances of special funds does it have 
the income that it requires. We should look forward also to sub- 
stantial growth here, to provide larger funds for research and publi- 
cation and for the general maintenance of central administration. 



4 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

What lies ahead in the next century for the Smithsonian Institution 
no one can safely predict. It was my privilege in 1946 to help cele- 
brate the one-hundredth anniversary of the Institution's founding, 
and at that time I wrote : "The Smithsonian had a definite beginning 
but has no foreseeable end. Its stated purpose knows no time or 
space limits, and it will go on through the centuries, changing with 
a changing world and so adjusting itself that it may fill a useful role 
in the upward struggle of mankind." It has been one of the greatest 
satisfactions of my life to have served an organization with such a 
prospect and with such potentialities. 

THE ESTABLISHMENT 

The Smithsonian Institution was created by act of Congress in 1846, 
in accordance with the terms of the will of James Smithson, of Eng- 
land, who in 1826 bequeathed his property to the United States of 
America "to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian 
Institution, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowl- 
edge among men." In receiving the property and accepting the trust. 
Congress determined that the Federal Government was without au- 
thority to administer the trust directly, and, therefore, constituted an 
"establishment" whose statutory members are "the President, the Vice 
President, the Chief Justice, and the heads of the executive depart- 
ments." 

THE BOARD OF REGENTS 

No changes in personnel occurred on the Board of Regents in the 
past year. The vacancy in the class of citizen regents still exists. The 
roll of regents at the close of the fiscal year was : Chief Justice of the 
United States Fred M. Vinson, Chancellor ; Vice President Alben W. 
Barkley; members from the Senate: Walter F. George, Clinton P. 
Anderson, Leverett Saltonstall; members from the House of Repre- 
sentatives: Clarence Cannon, John M. Vorys, E. E. Cox; citizen 
members: Harvey N. Davis, Arthur H. Compton, Vannevar Bush, 
Robert V. Fleming, and Jerome C. Hunsaker. 

On the evening of January 17, preceding the annual meeting, an 
informal dinner meeting of the Board was held in the main hall of 
the Smithsonian Institution, with the Chancellor, Chief Justice Vin- 
son, presiding. This occasion gave opportunity for members of the 
Smithsonian staff to make a fuller presentation of the scientific work 
of the Institution than was practicable at the regular meeting the 
next day. 

The Board held its regular annual meeting in the Regents' Room 
on January 18, 1952. The Secretary presented his annual report cov- 
ering the activities of the Institution and its bureaus, including the 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 6 

financial report of the Executive Committee, for the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1951, and this was accepted by the Board. The usual reso- 
lution authorized the expenditure by the Secretary of the income of 
the Institution for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1953. 

At the Chancellor's suggestion, the meeting of January 18 was re- 
cessed until April 9, at which time the report of the special committee 
to select a successor to the Secretary was given before the full Board. 
Robert V. Fleming, chairman of the special committee, presented the 
resolution electing Dr. Leonard Carmichael, president of Tufts Col- 
lege, Medford, Mass., as Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 
effective on January 1, 1953. 

Dr. Wetmore, who retires from administrative duties at his own 
request, will continue his scientific work with the Institution, under 
the title of research associate. 

FINANCES 

A statement on finances, dealing particularly with Smithsonian 
private funds, will be found in the report of the executive committee 
of the Board of Regents, page 169. 

APPROPRIATIONS 

Funds appropriated to the Institution for the fiscal year ended June 
30, 1952, total $2,553,200, obligated as follows : 

Management $63, 051 

United States National Museum - 780,260 

Bureau of American Ethnology 62, 890 

Astrophysical Observatory 116, 223 

National Collection of Fine Arts— 47,265 

National Air Museum 177, 147 

Canal Zone Biological Area 16, 647 

International Exchange Service 74, 678 

Maintenance and operation of buildings 893, 851 

General services 319, 084 

Estimated savings 2,104 

Total 2, 553, 200 

In addition, $1,240,000 was appropriated to the National Gallery of 
Art, a bureau of the Institution but administered by a separate board 
of trustees ; and $620,800 was provided in the District of Columbia ap- 
propriation act for the operation of the National Zoological Park. 

Besides these direct appropriations, the Institution received funds 
by transfer from other Federal agencies, as follows : 

From the Department of State, from the appropriation Interna- 
tional Information and Educational Activities, 1952, a total of $42,000 
for the period July 1 through December 31, 1951, for the planning and 



6 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

preparation of a series of educational exhibits in German schools and 
museums, and from the Institute of Inter- American Affairs a total of 
$45,705 for the period January 1 through June 30, 1952, for the opera- 
tion of the Institute of Social Anthropology, including the issuance 
of publications resulting from its work. 

From the National Park Service, De^Dartment of the Interior, 
$157,803 for archeological projects in connection with the River Basin 

Surveys. 

VISITORS 

Visitors to the Smithsonian group of buildings during the year 
1951-52 reached an all-time high total of 3,425,987, more than half a 
million more than the previous year. April 1952 was the month of 
largest attendance, with 490,983 ; May 1952 was the next largest, with 
461,750. Largest attendance for 1 day was 50,329 on May 31, 1952. 
A summary of attendance records for the five buildings is given in 
table 1. These figures do not include 3,294,569 estimated at the Na- 
tional Zoological Park and 1,522,596 at the National Gallery of Art. 

Table 1. — Visitors to the Smithsonian 'buildings during the year ended June SO, 

1952 



Year and month 



Smith- 
sonian 
Building 



Arts and 
Industries 
Building 



Natural 
History 
Building 



Aircraft 
Building 



Freer 
Gallery 
of Art 



Total 



1961 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1959 

January 

February --. 

March 

April 

May. 

June 

Total 



83,251 
84,690 
63, 235 
43, 510 
34,001 
20, 771 



24, 667 
32, 087 
34, 723 
92,611 
92, 430 
65, 302 



661, 278 



198, 583 
214, 620 
125, 845 
104,923 
72, 822 
39, 956 



60, 337 

73, 516 

75, 917 

245, 755 

212,643 

162, 993 



87,618 
92, 867 
73, 173 
59, 341 
49, 022 
29, 819 



40, 026 
48, 885 
57, 113 
111,754 
118, 030 
86, 815 



30,346 
31,918 
22,563 
15, 570 
12, 668 
8,581 



10, 518 
13,230 
15,437 
31, 167 
31, 559 
23,839 



1, 587, 910 



854, 463 



247, 396 



9,861 
10, 714 
7,052 
5,870 
3,872 
2,507 



2,972 
3,781 
3,992 
9,696 
7,088 
7,635 



74, 940 



409,659 
434, 809 
281, 868 
229, 214 
172, 385 
101,634 



138, 520 
171, 499 
187, 182 
490, 983 
461, 750 
346, 484 



3,425,987 



During the last 4 months of the fiscal year a special record was 
kept of groups of school children visiting the Smithsonian. The count 
showed that 159,784 school children came in 4,289 groups, or at an 
average of 37 to each group. By months the figures are : March, 420 
groups, 12,066 children; April, 1,022 groups, 38,286 children; May, 
2,207 groups, 85,881 children ; June, 640 groups, 23,551 children. For 
the 4-month period, therefore, 10.7 percent of all visitors were in this 
category. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 7 

NINETEENTH ANNUAL JAMES ARTHUR LECTURE ON THE SUN 

In 1931 the Institution received a bequest from James Arthur, of 
New York, a part of the income from which was to be used for an 
annual lecture on some aspect of the study of the sun. The nine- 
teenth Arthur lecture was delivered in the auditorium of the Natural 
History Building on April 3, 1952, by Rear Adm. L. O. Colbert, 
director of the Washington office of the Arctic Institute of North 
America, formerly Director of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 
The subject of Admiral Colbert's address was "The Sun, the Moon, 
and the Tides." This lecture will be published in full in the General 
Appendix of the Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smith- 
sonian Institution for 1952. 

HALL OF NAVAL HISTORY 

Special ceremonies were held on the evening of June 19, 1952, in 
connection with the opening of the hall of naval history in the Arts 
and Industries Building. In this new exhibit, designed and assem- 
bled under the direction of Mendel L. Peterson, National Museum 
curator of military and naval history, the story of American naval 
development, from, the privateer of the War of Independence to the 
present-day battleship, is told by means of ship and other models, 
paintings, prints, and original objects relating to celebrated naval 
craft and leaders. Through the years collections of such material 
have come to the Smithsonian. Now, for the first time, they are 
exhibited as an organized whole. Outstanding ship models in the 
collection, illustrating the advances from one war to another, are the 
Bon Homme Richard^ Constitution^ Kearsage^ the Olyiwpia of Ad- 
miral Dewey, the cruiser Wichita^ and the battleship Missouri. 

Speakers at the opening ceremonies included Rear Adm. John B. 
Heffernan, United States Navy ; Dr. Remington Kellogg, Director of 
the United States National Museum; and Dr. Alexander Wetmore, 
Secretary of the Smithsonian Instiution. 

POLICING OF SMITHSONIAN BUILDINGS 

On October 24, 1951, the President approved a bill passed by the 
Eighty-second Congress (Public Law 206) "relating to the policing 
of the buildings and grounds of the Smithsonian Institution and its 
constituent bureaus." Among other provisions, this act authorizes 
the Secretary of the Institution to designate Smithsonian employees 
as special policemen with power to enforce regulations and make 
ftTrests in connection with the policing of our buildings and grounds. 
This authorization places us in a firm position relative to the protec- 
tion of the many thousands of visitors who come to the Institution 

226984—52 2 



8 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 2 

annually and sorves to safeguard the tremendously valuable materials 
in our collections that by law are our responsibility. 

MARY VAUX WALCOTT FUND FOR PUBLICATIONS IN BOTANY 

Acting upon a proposal by the Secretary, the executive conmiittee 
of the Board of Eegents during the year authorized the establishment 
of the Mary Vaux Walcott Fund for Publications in Botany. This 
fund, amounting to $60,000, is derived from the sales of "North Amer- 
ican Wild Flowers," the 5-volume quarto portfolio of 400 water-color 
plates of wild flowers painted from nature by Mrs. Charles D. Walcott. 
The plates were reproduced in color by a special process and were pub- 
lished under her supervision and generous subsidy. A large number 
of sets of the plates have been sold by the Institution in the 27 years 
since their publication, and it seems especially fitting that the income 
from the proceeds of their sale should now be used for publication by 
the Smithsonian of contributions to the science of botany, in which 
Mrs. Walcott had a deep interest. It is planned that the publications 
issued under this fund will be principally teclinical in nature and will 
relate to the researches of the United States National Herbarium. 
They will appear from time to time in the Smithsonian Miscellaneous 
Collections. 

SUMMARY OF THE YEAR'S ACTIVITIES OF THE BRANCHES OF THE 

INSTITUTION 

National Mu^emn. — More than 607,000 specimens, twice as many as 
last year, were received and distributed among the Museum's six de- 
partments, bringing the total catalog entries to 33,184,494. Some of 
the year's more noteworthy accessions included : In anthropology, an 
eighteenth-century w^ampum belt of the Wyandot Indians, a collection 
of Javanese puppets, and 78 Indian skeletons from burial sites on 
Buggs Island in the Roanoke River, Ya. ; in zoology, important mam- 
mals from Borneo, Alaska, and the United States, birds from Colom- 
bia and Panama, reptiles and amphibians from Egypt and Borneo, 
and large collections of fishes, insects, marine invertebrates, and mol- 
lusks from many parts of the world ; in botany, gifts of plants espe- 
cially from Honduras, Colombia, Peru, Ryukyu Islands, Florida, and 
Canada, and many others received in exchanges with other institu- 
tions ; in geology, five minerals heretofore unrepresented in the min- 
eralogical collections, a collection of 250,000 fresh-water Mesozoic and 
Cenozoic mollusks, and vertebrate fossils from Washington, Montana, 
Wyoming, South Dakota, and North Dakota ; in engineering and in- 
dustries, a fanning mill used in West Virginia about 75 years ago, a 
corn planter of about 1860, an 1878 oil engine, a collection of early 
radio apparatus, and a series of stones and prints illustrating the mak- 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 9 

ing of a lithograph; and in history, a walnut chest of drawers once 
owned by Jonathan Edwards, an unusual group of ship models for 
the new hall of naval history, and the saddles and equine equipment 
and the library of Gen. John J. Pershing. 

Members of the staff conducted field work in Honduras, Dominican 
Republic, Panama, Colombia, British North Borneo, Brazil, Ryukyu 
Islands, Mexico, Alaska, and many sections of the United States. 
The Museum issued 27 publications during the year. 

National Gallery of Art. — Visitors to the Gallery during the year 
numbered 1,522,596, a slight increase over the previous year. The 
Gallery received 1,891 accessions, by gift, loan, or deposit. Works of 
art accepted included paintings by Winslow Homer, J. J. and J. W. 
Audubon, Thomas Stephens, Tintoretto, Corot, Healy, Turner, Trum- 
bull, Hogarth, Sargent, and Alvan Clark ; 15 bronzes by Daumier ; and 
several groups of prints and drawings. Ten special exhibits were 
held at the Gallery during the year. Traveling exhibitions of prints 
from the Rosenwald Collection were circulated to 19 galleries and 
museums in this country, and one exhibit traveled in Germany. 
Exhibitions from the "Index of American Design" were shown 78 
times in 20 States and the District of Columbia and also in Europe. 
More than 36,000 persons attended the Gallery's special tours and the 
"Picture of the Week" talks ; more than 14,000 the Sunday afternoon 
lectures. The Sunday evening concerts were continued. Construction 
of five new galleries, begun in 1950, was completed. 

National Collection of Fine Arts. — The Smithsonian Art Commis- 
sion met on December 4, 1951, and accepted for the National Collection 
2 oil paintings, 2 sculptures, 5 pieces of ceramics, several items of 
glassware, and 1 water-color miniature on ivory. Eight miniatures 
were acquired through the Catherine Walden Myer fund. Fifty-four 
oil paintings by Edwin Scott were added to the Alice Pike Barney 
Memorial Collection, and $5,000 was added to the Barney fund. 
The Gallery held 10 special exhibits during the year. Under the 
direction of Mrs. Jolin A. Pope, a Smithsonian traveling exhibition 
service was inaugurated, financed partly through the Barney fund 
and partly from a grant made by the Department of State. 

Freer Gallery of Art. — Purchases for the Freer collections included 
Chinese bronzes, paintings, and pottery ; an Egyptian bronze incense 
burner; Persian metal work; an Indian painting with Persian verse; 
and a seventh-century Japanese bronze sculpture. The staff members 
studied new accessions, examined objects contemplated for purchase, 
and pursued their researches in oriental and Islamic art. A technical 
research laboratory, with Rutherford J. Gettens in charge, was com- 
pleted and began a new phase of Gallery activity — the investigation 
of material and techniques of the artists and craftsmen represented 



10 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

in the Freer collections. Dr. Ettinghausen continued his work abroad, 
particularly in the Near East. The final number of Ars Islamica^ 
under Dr. Ettinghausen's editorship, was published in August 1951. 
Visitors to the Gallery numbered approximately 75,000. 

Bureau of American Ethnology. — Members of the Bureau staff 
continued their ethnological and archeological researches, Director 
Stirling on Mexican and Panamanian archeology, Dr. Collins on the 
Eskimo and on the archeology of Cornwallis Island, Dr. Harrington 
on the Maya language, Dr. Fenton on the Iroquois, and Dr. Drucker 
on Meso-American archeology. Dr. Roberts continued as Director of 
the River Basin Surveys. Since the beginning of this project 7 years 
ago, 3,105 archeological sites have been located and recorded, and 
578 of these have been recommended for excavation or limited testing. 
This year's excavation work covered 13 reservoir areas in 11 States, 
with 22 excavating parties in the field. 

The Institute of Social Anthropology, an autonomous unit of the 
Bureau financed through transfer of funds from the Department of 
State, carried on its field programs in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and 
Peru. During the year activities of the Institute were integrated 
with those of the Institute of Inter- American Affairs, whereby ISA an- 
thropologists participated in IIAA public-health programs in Latin 
America. 

International Exchange Service. — The International Exchange 
Service is the official United States agency for the interchange of 
governmental, scientific, and literary publications between this coun- 
try and other nations of the world. During the past year the Ex- 
change Service handled 1,001,614 packages of such publications, 
weighing 825,627 pounds — 9,386 packages less than last year but 
36,854 pounds more. Consignments are now made to all countries 
except China and Rumania. The number of sets of United States 
official publications sent abroad in exchange for similar publications 
of other countries is 104 (62 full and 42 partial sets). Eighty-seven 
copies of the Federal Register and 94 of the Congressional Record are 
also sent abroad through the Exchange Service. 

National Zoological Park. — ^Visitors to the Zoo totaled approxi- 
mately 3,300,000 for the year. At the close of the fiscal year there 
were 2,675 animals in the Zoo collections, the removals during the 
year (1,721) somewhat exceeding the additions (1,575). Fourteen 
species of animals were received that had not previously been ex- 
hibited in the National Zoological Park. Among these were an Aus- 
tralian copperhead, an albino great gray kangaroo, a Bornean porcu- 
pine, and a pair of MacQueen's bustards. The United States Fish 
and Wildlife Service and the United States Army Medical Unit in 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 11 

Malaya continued to send desirable specimens. In all, 142 creatures 
were born or hatched at the Zoo — 72 mammals, 55 birds, and 15 
reptiles. 

Astrofhysical Ohservatory. — The research work of the APO pro- 
gressed in both of its divisions — astrophysical research and radiation 
and organisms. In addition to their regular programs, both divisions 
are conducting cooperative projects under contract with other Gov- 
ernment agencies. Solar-radiation studies continued at the Observa- 
tory's two field stations, one at Table Mountain, Calif., and the other 
at Montezuma, Chile. Five silver-disk pyrheliometers were con- 
structed and furnished at cost to institutions in France, Finland, Cen- 
tral Africa, Greece, and Rhode Island. The division of radiation and 
organisms continued its investigations of the biochemical reactions 
involved in the absorption of light energy in green plants. 

National Air Museum. — Owing to the necessity of vacating all the 
nam's storage facility at Park Ridge, 111., space had to be found 
elsewhere in order to preserve the storage collection. Through the 
assistance of the National Capital Planning Commission, a plot was 
made available at Suitland, Md., near Washington, D. C. Several 
prefabricated buildings will be erected there to house the nearly 
4,000 specimens in the storage collection until the permanent National 
Air Museum Building is provided. Accessions for the year brought 
additions to many phases of the aeronautical collection, including 
full-sized aircraft, engines, instruments, experimental and scale- 
model aircraft, parachutes, and trophies. In all, 110 specimens from 
21 sources, comprising 30 separate accessions, were received during 
the year. These are listed in the full report of the Museum (Appen- 
dix 9, p. 136) . Members of the staff made special surveys for materials 
desirable for the collections. As space and facilities permitted, im- 
provements were made in the public exhibits in the Arts and Indus- 
tries and Aircraft Buildings. 

Canal Zone Biological Area. — The new laboratory building begun 
last year at the Barro Colorado Island station was completed. Dur- 
ing the year, 602 visitors came to the island ; 48 of these were scientists 
who used the facilities of the island to carry on studies in various bio- 
logical fields. One such study, carried on over a period of years, by 
Dr. Eugene Eisenmann, resulted during the year in the publication 
"Annotated List of Birds of Barro Colorado Island, Panama Canal 
Zone," issued by the Smithsonian Institution. This lists 306 species. 
Other than birds, seven species of vertebrate animals have been added 
to the known fauna of the area since the list was published in the 1950 
report — two mammals, four reptiles, and one amphibian — making in 
all 486 vertebrate forms known from the island. 



12 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

PUBLICATIONS 

The publications of the Smithsonian Institution are in two cate- 
gories—those issued from federally appropriated funds (particularly 
the publications of the National Museum and the Bureau of American 
Ethnology, and the Smithsonian Report) and those issued under in- 
come from the Institution's various endowment funds (Smithsonian 
Miscellaneous Collections, publications of the Freer Gallery of Art, 
and special publications). Eight regular series are issued, plus six 
others that appear less frequently. Publications are distributed free 
to more than a thousand libraries, both in this country and abroad, as 
well as to a large list of educational and scientific organizations and 
specialists in various fields. The Smithsonian publications program is 
a major part in the Institution's endeavor to fulfill the diffusion-of- 
knowledge function prescribed by its founder. In all, 144,166 copies 
of Smithsonian publications were distributed during the year. 

Seventy-six publications appeared under the Smithsonian imprint 
during the year. Outstanding among these were : "Biological Investi- 
gations in Mexico," by Edward A. Goldman; "Middle Cambrian 
Stratigraphy and Faunas of the Canadian Rocky Mountains," by 
Franco Rasetti ; "The Butterflies of Virginia," by Austin H. and Leila 
F. Clark ; "The Mysidacea of the United States National Museum," by 
Walter M .Tattersall ; and "Symposium on Local Diversity in Iroquois 
Culture," edited by William N. Fenton. A complete list of the year's 
publications will be found in the report of the chief of the editorial 
division. Appendix 12. 

Smithsonian tables, — There were also issued two numbers in the 
Institution's series of tables — the sixth revised edition of the Smith- 
sonian Meteorological Tables, compiled by Robert J. List, of the United 
States Weather Bureau; and Smithsonian Logarithmic Tables, pre- 
pared by G. W. Spenceley, Rheba M. Spenceley, and E. R. Epperson, 
of Miami (Ohio) University, presenting 23-decimal-place values of 
common and natural logarithms. In addition, the ninth revised edi- 
tion of the Smithsonian Physical Tables, compiled by W. E. Forsythe, 
of Cleveland, was partly in galley proof at the end of the year. 

First Ladies' Gown^. — Also in press at the close of the fiscal year was 
a book on "The Dresses of the First Ladies of the White House," by 
Margaret W. Brown, National Museum historian. The book (8 x 10 
inches in size) describes this popular collection of costumes as they are 
displayed in the Arts and Industries Building. Each of the 35 gowns 
of the First Ladies, from Martha Washington to Eleanor Roosevelt, 
is reproduced in full color from color photographs. There are also 
brief biographies and portraits of the First Ladies. Because of the 
high cost of producing the volume, it will not be sent free to the 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 13 

Institution's regular mailing lists but will be on sale in Smithsonian 
buildings in Washington and may also be purchased by mail. 

LIBRARY 

A major organizational change in the Smithsonian library was 
effected during the year when the largest of its branches, the National 
Museum library, was physically merged with the general library for- 
merly located in the Smithsonian Building, and all major library 
functions were consolidated. The consolidated library and offices are 
housed in the Natural History Building. The library received 60,512 
publications during the year, mostly by gifts and through exchanges 
with other institutions and organizations. Noteworthy among the 
gifts were more than a thousand volumes from the library of the late 
Gen. John J. Pershing and more than 1,500 publications on stamps 
from Franklin R. Bruns, Jr., National Museum curator of philately. 
Nearly 23,000 publications were transferred to the Library of Con- 
gress, about 3,000 to the Army Medical Library, and 425 to other 
Government libraries. From the library's huge collection of dupli- 
cates, 11,420 pieces were sent to the United States Book Exchange. 
At the close of the year the library's holdings totaled 938,740 volumes, 
including 584,213 in the Smithsonian deposit at the Library of Con- 
gress but exclusive of incomplete volumes of serials and separates 
and reprints from serials. 



APPENDIX 1 
Report on the United States National Museum 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the condi- 
tion and operations of the United States National Museum for the 
iiscal year ended June 30, 1952 : 

BUILDINGS AND EQUIPMENT 

Construction was completed on the conversion of the southwest 
court in the Arts and Industries Building to a modern storage facility, 
providing 8,000 square feet of space on the ground, mezzanine, second, 
and third floors. Outside contracts amounting to $13,582 were let 
for the construction of wooden frames for storage cases and drawers. 
The frames of the storage cases will be covered with sheets of thin 
steel by the Institution's own mechanics. 

COLLECTIONS 

During the year 607,354 specimens (approximately twice as many 
as last year) were added to the national collections and distributed 
among the six departments as follows : Anthropology, 4,852 ; zoology, 
251,290; botany, 62,476; geology, 279,968; engineering and industries, 
1,638; and history, 7,130. Most of the accessions were acquired as 
gifts from individuals or as transfers from Government departments 
and agencies. The complete report on the Museum, published as a 
separate document, includes a detailed list of the year's acquisitions, 
of which the more important are summarized below. Catalog entries 
in all departments now total 33,184,494. 

Anthropology. — A well-documented symbolic wampum belt, which 
had served as a token of peace and friendship after the eighteenth- 
century wars between the Seneca and Wyandot (Huron) Indians, 
was presented by Howard W. Elkinton. An outstanding addition 
to the archeological collection is the gift by Kobert C. Cook of a 
carved and painted wooden cup, which was referred to as a kero 
(wooden beer cup) by the Inca Indians. 

By a bequest from the late Mrs. Emily V. Taylor, the Museum re- 
ceived a Philadelphia high chest or highboy of unusual design and 
workmanship of the period 1760-70. A recent noteworthy gift 
from Mr. and Mrs. Robert C. Pierson, Jr., consists of a complete 
14 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 15 

miniature theater set of 130 appurtenances of the Javanese puppet 
show, wayang^ which they obtained from a puppet master in the 
Sundanese village of Tjiawi, West Java. Mrs. Hoffman Philip gave 
a collection of religious objects, weapons, jewelry of silver filigree, 
and accessories of dress, obtained in Abyssinia by her husband, the 
late Hoffman Philip, while in the diplomatic service. John Smithson 
and John Smithson, Jr., presented a George II silver tankard, a George 
III basting spoon, a traveler's silver wine cup, and two English 
silver luster teapots. 

By transfer from Kiver Basin Surveys, the division of physical 
anthropology received 78 Indian skeletons selected from 106 burials 
on Buggs Island in the Koanoke River, near Clarksville, Va. This 
burial area will be inundated when the dam for the reservoir is com- 
pleted. 

Zoology. — Received during the year were more than 251,000 zool- 
ogical specimens, obtained in Alaska, Algeria, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, 
Arabia, Assam, Australia, Belgian Congo, Bolivia, Borneo, Canada, 
Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Egypt, French West Africa, Gilbert 
Islands, Japan, Manchuria, Martinique, Mexico, Mozambique, North- 
ern Rhodesia, Panama, Philippines, Southern Rhodesia, Turkey, 
United States, and Venezuela. 

The fishery investigations of the United States Fish and Wildlife 
Service vessel Oregon in the Gulf of Mexico, under the leadership of 
Stewart Springer, resulted in the transfer to the Museum of im- 
portant and diverse collections of fishes, crustaceans, and other marine 
invertebrates from the deeper waters of the gulf. 

An important accession of 579 mammals, including many forms 
previously not represented in the collection, from Mount Kinabalu, 
northern Borneo, was received by transfer from the Army Medical 
Service Graduate School. With the aid of funds furnished by the 
Office of Naval Research, Dr. Henry W. Setzer of the Museum staff 
obtained 141 mammals along the Arctic slope of Alaska. Charles O. 
Handley, Jr., presented nearly 600 mammals, chiefly from the eastern 
United States. Several shipments of mammals, totaling 133 speci- 
mens, were received from Dr. W. L. Jellison, of the Rocky Mountain 
Laboratory, United States Public Health Service. A collection of 
183 mammals from Labrador was purchased from Dana P. Snyder 
under the income from the Spencer Fullerton Baird fund. The 
Biological Surveys collection was increased by 685 specimens, includ- 
ing a series of Alaskan sea otters, of which a family group will be used 
in the preparation of a habitat group for display in the Natural 
History Building. 

Ornithological field work in northern Colombia by M. A. Carriker, 
Jr., financed for several years by the income from the W. L. Abbott 



16 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

fund, came to a close during the past year. The Abbott fund also 
financed in part the continuance of the Panamanian ornithological 
survey by Dr. A. Wetniore and his assistant, W. M. Perrygo. The 
Colombian collection comprised 1,073 bird skins, 9 skeletons, and 8 
eggs; the Panamanian, 675 skins, 9 skeletons, 5 alcoholics, 9 eggs, 
and 1 nest. Worthy of mention this year are the 379 bird skins from 
Mozambique received from Donald W. Lamm, the gift of 675 skins 
of birds from Colombia by Father Antonio Olivares, and the presenta- 
tion by the Musee du Congo Beige, Tervueren, of 2 specimens of the 
Congo peacock, Afropavo congensis. The E. J. Brown bequest pro- 
vided funds for the purchase of 60 bird skins from the Algerian 
Sahara. From the Arctic Health Research Center the Museum re- 
ceived by transfer 302 skins of birds from northern Alaska v^hich 
had been collected by Dr. Laurence Irving and his assistants. 

A large collection, comprising 1,165 reptiles and amphibians col- 
lected by Dr. R. E. Kuntz in Egypt and adjoining countries, was 
received from the Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3, and 75 reptiles 
and amphibians from Mount Kinabalu, northern Borneo, were trans- 
ferred to the Museum from the Army Medical Service Graduate 
School. Types and paratypes of new forms of salamander, toad, and 
snake were received, respectively, from M. B. Mittleman, Ottys San- 
ders, and W. Auffenberg. 

The generous gift of 16,417 fishes from eastern United States by 
Dr. E. A. Lachner, associate curator, represents the largest single 
accession received by the division of fishes during the year. Dr. 
Lachner, with the assistance of William T. Leapley, also obtained 
more than 15,000 fishes, as well as crustaceans, insects, amphibians, and 
reptiles, in the southeastern States. As exchanges there were ob- 
tained from the Museum of Comparative Zoology, through William 
C. Schroeder, 104 holotj^pes, cotypes, and paratypes of fishes; from 
Dr. George Moore, Oklahoma A. & M. College, 5,115 named fresh- 
water fishes from the Arkansas and Red Rivers; from Dr. J. J. 
Hoedeman, Zoologisch Museum, Amsterdam, 11 paratypes of 3 West 
Indian species ; from Dr. N. B. Marshall, British Museum of Natural 
History, 5 paratypes ; and from Drs. J. Bohlke and John C. Briggs, of 
Stanford University, 7 paratypes of new species of fishes being de- 
scribed by them. Dr. Clark Hubbs, University of Texas, sent a gift 
of 83 fishes, and Cecil Miles, Ministeria de Agricultura, Bogota, 
Colombia, donated the holotype of a new pomadasid fish from the 
Colombian Cai-ibbean. Through Stewart Springer, Harvey R. Bullis, 
Jr., Isaac Ginsburg, and Dayton Lee Alverson, the United States Fish 
and Wildlife Service transferred 1,154 fishes this fiscal year. Dr. 
H. B. Goodrich, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn., returned 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 17 

about 1,400 fish specimens in their original jars which were sent to 
Wesleyan University in the early 1880's by Dr. G. Brown Goode. 

The division of insects received as its most important accession the 
collection of O. L. Cartwright of approximately 6,000 miscellaneous 
insects, a large portion of which was made on the grounds of the 
Inter- American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Costa Rica. An- 
other noteworthy accession comprised about 4,300 Neotropical bugs 
which were donated by Dr. Luis F. Martorell, of the agricultural 
experiment station. University of Puerto Rico, and Dr. John S. Cald- 
well, of Centerville, Ohio. By transfer from the Department of Agri- 
culture the division acquired nearl}'' 2,000 insects from Alaska, collected 
by Dr. R. I. Sailer. 

As gifts, the division of marine invertebrates received more than 
10,979 specimens of barnacles and other marine invertebrates, as well 
as publications, notes, and lantern slides from the collections of the 
late Dr. J. Paul Visscher, presented by Mrs. J. Paul Visscher and 
children, Cleveland, Ohio ; and from Dr. Stillman Wright, Washing- 
ton, D. C, more than 633 lots of copepods and other fresh-water plank- 
ton from South America. Dr. E. A. Lachner collected for the Museum 
247 crayfishes and 2 shrimps from the southern United States. 
Through David C. Nutt, the Museum received 1,387 specimens of 
miscellaneous marine invertebrates collected by the Blue Dolphin 
Expedition along the coast of Labrador. As exchanges, through 
Di\ H. B. Goodrich there were added to the collections more than 2,141 
specimens of marine invertebrates from Wesleyan University; and 
from the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historic, Leiden, Holland, 
through Dr. L. B. Holthuis, 10 paratypes of crayfishes from New 
Guinea, and 4 paratypes and 19 other specimens of fresh-water 
shrimps from Surinam. By transfer, more than 1,410 miscellaneous 
invertebrates were acquired from the United States Navy Arctic 
Research Laboratory, through J. Bohlke. 

The largest accession received this fiscal year in the division of 
mollusks consisted of 22,000 specimens collected by Dr. Joseph P. E. 
Morrison in the area from Pennsylvania to Virginia, west to Missouri. 
Among the outstanding gifts received were 1,380 marine mollusks, 
largely from western Australia, presented by Mr. and Mrs. James A. 
Grigg ; 264 marine mollusks from the Red Sea, a gift from Sozon Vati- 
kiotis ; 55 specimens of rare Japanese marine mollusks from the Kyoto 
University through Dr. Tadashige Habe. There were received in 
exchanges from the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard Uni- 
versity, 1,543 mollusks; and from the Institut Frangais d'Afrique 
Noire of Dakar, French West Africa, 169 marine mollusks. Note- 
worthy also was a transfer of several rare shells from the Gulf of 



IS ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 2 

Mexico by the Fish and Wildlife Service through Stewart Springer 
and ITarvey R. Biillis, Jr. 

The most outstanding accession of echinoderms comprised 26 speci- 
mens from the Gulf of ]\fexico received by transfer from the Fish and 
Wildlife Service through Stewart Springer. 

Botany. — Jason R. Swallen, head curator of tlie department, col- 
lected 1,764 grasses in Honduras; Dr. E. H. Walker obtained 6,356 
plants in the Ryukyu Islands and Japan on his botanical survey of 
Okinawa and adjacent islands ; 232 miscellaneous specimens from Min- 
nesota and California were collected for the Museum by C. V. Morton ; 
and E. P. Killip added to the collections 1,367 specimens, mostly from 
the Florida Keys and Cuba. Gifts included 1,419 specimens from the 
Arctic Institute of North America, collected by L. A. Spetzman in 
Alaska; 1,436 specimens from the Museo de Historia Natural "Javier 
Prado," Lima, Peru, collected by Dr. Ramon Ferreyra ; 1,133 plants of 
Florida from the Archbold Biological Station, Lake Placid, Fla., col- 
lected by L. J. Brass ; Oscar L. Haught, Littleton, W. Va., presented 
1,494 specimens of Colombian plants, representing the most recent 
results of his productive field work in South America. In exchange, 
2,072 specimens, mostly phanerogams and cryptogams of unusual his- 
torical interest were received from the Conservatoire et Jardin Botan- 
iques, Geneva, Switzerland; 1,137 miscellaneous Canadian plants from 
the Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, Canada ; 800 plants from the 
New York Botanical Garden, collected in Nyasaland by L. J. Brass ; 
982 specimens from the University of California collected by Annie 
M. Alexander and Louise Kellogg ; 659 specimens from V. L. Kamarov, 
of the Botanical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics, representing various collections from west- 
ern Siberia; and 515 plants from the Instituto de Botanico of the 
Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Argentina, collected in Patagonia 
by H. Sleumer. The National Arboretum transferred to the Museum 
567 specimens from Colombia and Ecuador. 

Geology. — Five new minerals not formerly represented in the miner- 
alogical collections were received as gifts and three as exchanges. 

The Roebling bequest provided funds for the purchase of a large 
gem spodumene crystal from Brazil, a fine topaz crystal from Colo- 
rado, and several etched masses of gem-quality beryl from Brazil. A 
pink octahedron of fluorite on smoky quartz from Switzerland, 
wolframite on cassiterite from Bolivia, and vanadinite from Mexico 
were purchased under the Canfield fund. A 53.8-carat spessartite 
garnet from Brazil was purchased under the Chamberlain fund for 
the gem collection. Mrs. C. Drage, in memory of her father. Dr. Frank 
Wigglesworth Clarke, for many years honorary curator of minerals in 
this Museum, presented a fine cat's-eye chrysoberyl from Ceylon. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 19 

Dr. Stuart H. Perry donated five meteorites. Of these, three from 
the following localities are new to the Museum collections: Dayton, 
Ohio; Loreta, Baja California; and Keen Mountain, Va. 

A rare Japanese rock, miharaite, was received in exchange from the 
National Science Museum, Tokyo, Japan. 

Important accessions were received as gifts, exchanges, or transfers 
by the division of invertebrate paleontology and paleobotany, includ- 
ing 75 type specimens of Foraminifera from Trinidad from Dr. P. 
Bronnimann ; the types of 14 Cretaceous Foraminifera and 39 Paleo- 
cene Radiolaria from Dr. D. L. Frizzell ; 58 type Foraminifera from 
the Lower Cretaceous of Algeria from Dr. A. ten Dam; 51 types of 
Devonian ostracods from Iowa from Lee B. Gibson ; and 90 types of 
Mississippian crinoids from Dr. L. R. Laudon. 

During the year 288 crinoids, including a number of types, were 
purchased under the Springer fund from Harrell L. Strimple. Income 
from the Walcott fund provided funds for paleontological field work 
which resulted in considerable collections from iVlabama, Ohio, Penn- 
sylvania, southern Appalachians, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia. 

Transfers from the United States Geological Survey include 1,800 
types of Ozarkian and Canadian cephalopods described by A. K. 
Miller, Dr. E. O. Ulrich, and others; and 2 additional large lots of 
types of cephalopods. The Office of Naval Research transferred 
approximately 250,000 fresh-water Mesozoic and Cenozoic mollusks 
collected by Dr. T. C. Yen. 

By exchange the Museum acquired Foraminifera from Algeria, 
Aruba Island, Estonia, Gotland, Germany, Austria, and Japan, as well 
as invertebrate fossils from Germany, Holland, Sicily, Australia, 
Tasmania, and Canada. 

A representative collection of Oligocene and Miocene mammals from 
ihe Canyon Ferry Reservoir area in Montana, a Cretaceous mosasaur 
from South Dakota, and a Paleocene pantolambdid from North Da- 
kota were included in the collections obtained by Dr. T. E. White and 
transferred by the River Basin Surveys. Significant collections trans- 
ferred by the United States Geological Survey included fish remains 
from the Parana Basin of Brazil, mastodont and other remains from 
the Ringold formation in Washhigton, and a variety of fossils from 
Eocene and Oligocene localities in Wyoming and Montana. Paleon- 
tological field work by Dr. C. L. Gazin under the Walcott fund 
resulted in the collection of nearly 270 small mammals in several lower 
Eocene and lower Oligocene deposits of western Wyoming. 

Engineering and industries. — Two examples of labor-saving ma- 
chines that served the farmer during the nineteenth century were 
received as gifts. One of these, a crank-operated fanning mill for 
separating chaff from grain and hulls from beans, which was used in 



20 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

West Virginia about 75 years ago, was received from Arden Wilson. 
The other, a 2-row corn planter dated about 1860, was presented by 
Warren Hammond. A beautiful round tablecloth, 10 feet 10 inches 
in diameter, made of linen eyelet lace and hand-made filet medallions, 
was acquired as a bequest from Lena L. Jones. Eight pieces of 
American embroidery and drawn work of the eighteenth and nine- 
teenth centuries were presented by Mrs. Helen F. McMickle. The 
United States Forest Products Laboratories transferred to the section 
of wood technology 17 woods from eastern United States and Mexico 
jind 8 new wood products resulting from laboratory research. Joseph 
L. Stearns presented 25 woods from Indochina. 

An oil engine built before 1878 by George B. Brayton, American in- 
ventor and manufacturer, was presented by Brown University at the 
suffjrestion of Professor Emeritus William H. Kenerson. The en- 
gine, which was purchased by the university to drive an arc-light dy- 
namo, is a 1-cylinder kerosene beam engine weighing about 1,500 
pounds. Stephen C. Van Fleet presented a collection of early radio 
apparatus, including a complete 10-watt transmitter of 1922-23, a 
Jenkins Radiovisor of 1930, and a See- All Television Scanner. 

Russell T. Limbach made a series of stones and prints to illustrate 
the making of a lithograph. Several notable prints, including two 
fifteenth-century niello prints, "Christ on the Cross" and "Portrait of 
a Pope," were purchased through the Dahlgreen fund. The section of 
photography received from Dr. Lowrain McCrea his original cyto- 
scope camera. Additions to the print collection include "Awakening," 
an engraving by Gabor Peterdi, and "Furnace," a wood engraving by 
Charles Quest, both purchased under the Dahlgreen fund, and "Win- 
ter," a lithograph by Russell T. Limbach, the gift of the artist. Fif- 
teen prints by Wood W^hitesell and 14 prints by A. Aubrey Bodine 
were presented by the artists for the photographic print collection. A 
keratometer or opthalmometer designed to measure the amount of 
corneal astigmatism was received from Dr. Arthur O. Morton. 

History. — A walnut chest of drawers once owned by Jonathan Ed- 
wards, New England scholar and theologian (1703-1758), came as a 
gift from Louise Taylor Andrews to the division of civil history. 

During the year an unusual group of ship models, including the Bon 
Homme Richard^ frigate Constitution^ sloop Kearsarge^ cruiser Olym- 
pian cruiser Brooklyn^ destroyer Manley^ and heavy cruiser Wichita 
were transferred by the Department of the Navy for incorporation in 
the hall of naval history. 

As a bequest, the division of military history received the saddles 
and horse equipment of Gen. John J. Pershing, and his son, Francis 
Warren Pershing, presented the General's library comprising some 
1.800 volumes. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 21 

The heirs of Edward C. Tarbell (1862-1938) gave 12 medals, which 
had been awarded to this American artist, to the division of numis- 
matics. The Reverend Hugh Miller collection of 544 oriental coins 
and 110 Korean amulets was received as a transfer from the Treasury 
Department. 

The philatelic collections were increased during the year by gifts 
from the Universal Postal Union, the United States Post Office De- 
partment, and agencies of other governments. The dies of George 
F. Nesbitt & Co. (1853-70) which were used in the production of early 
United States envelopes were presented by B. H. Homan, Jr., of New 
York City. The library of this division was increased by important 
gifts from the Essay-Proof Society, the Bureau Issues Association, and 
Scott Publications, Inc. 

EXPLORATION AND FIELD WORK 

Through the cooperation of the National Geographic Society and 
the United States Air Force, Frank M. Setzler made a survey of the 
human and animal effigies located along the Colorado River near the 
towns of Blythe and Ripley, Calif., and near Topock, Ariz. During 
the year Dr. W. W. Taylor, Jr., directed six trips for the prehistoric 
Pueblo ecology survey in the Four Corners district of Arizona, Utah, 
Colorado, and New Mexico. As the representative of the Smithsonian 
Institution, H. W. Krieger attended the Fifth Interamerican Congress 
of Municipal History at Ciudad Trujillo, Dominican Republic, and 
subsequently revisited and examined the site of the first planned set- 
tlement in the New World, which had been established by Christopher 
Columbus in December 1493, on his second voyage, at La Isabella. A 
Neosha grant enabled John C. Ewers to continue his field studies of 
Blackfoot crafts on reservations in Alberta, Canada, and Montana. 
Dr. Waldo R. Wedel was detailed to the Smithsonian River Basin Sur- 
veys for an archeological field investigation of the Oahe Reservoir area 
along the Missouri River in Stanley County, S. Dak. 

Field work of recent years on the distribution and variation of the 
bird life of the Republic of Panama, by Dr. Alexander Wetmore, 
Secretary, assisted by Watson M. Perrygo, of the United States Na- 
tional Museum, was continued during February and March. Follow- 
ing several days occupied with business matters relating to the Canal 
Zone Biological Area, Dr. Wetmore crossed to the Caribbean side of 
the Isthmus where his field outfit, through the cooperation of the 
United States Air Force at Albrook Field, was transported by truck 
to the road end at the mouth of the Rio Salud, west of the Canal Zone. 
Here porters were hired for transport along the beach trail to the 
mouth of the Rio Indio in the western edge of the Province of Colon. 
The Rio Indio is one of the longest rivers in western Panama, as it 



22 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

heads in the mountains to the north of El Valle de Anton, where col- 
lections were made on the headwaters last year. Field work begun 
on February 14 covered the coastal area inland to Chilar, and on 
February '21 the party moved inland to the head of canoe navigation 
at El Uracil lo in northern Code Province. After two weeks' work 
there, and a further week at the mouth of the river, work terminated 
on March 12. 

The region is still one of forest, though clearing and cultivation are 
going forward rapidly. Vegetation was heavy, and although this 
was the dry season there were daily rains except in the immediate 
area of the coast. The collections obtained give much valuable data 
on distribution, particularly since the region has been unknown 
ornithologically. 

Following this, the party worked from March 14 to 24 on Taboga 
Island, opposite the Pacific end of the Panama Canal, a region as dry 
as the Caribbean area was humid. The avifauna is extremely limited 
but has yielded interesting and unexpected information that will be 
embodied in a short paper covering Taboga and the adjacent islands 
of Taboguilla and Urava, to be published during next fiscal year in 
the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. 

The ornithological survey of Colombia, carried on for several years 
through ^1. A. Carriker, Jr., opened this season at the end of January 
in the southern part of the republic near Purace. Operations in the 
main covered regions accessible from Popayan, with one excursion to 
the lowland areas in the Territory of Caqueta. The work has been 
highly successful, and this season completes the survey. The speci- 
mens obtained this year from the Departments of Cauca and Huila 
will be especially important in assistance in the study of the earlier 
collections from farther north. 

The detail of Dr. David H. Johnson to the Army Medical Service 
Graduate School research unit, engaged in a study of mammalian and 
other hosts involved in the transmission of scrub typhus in the vicinity 
of Mount Kinabalu, British North Borneo, was continued from June 
to August 1951. The ecological survey of the mammals of the Arctic 
slope of Alaska, commenced by Dr. Henry W. Setzer under a coopera- 
tive arrangement with the Arctic Kesearch Laboratory, Office of Naval 
Research, Point Barrow, Alaska, was concluded in August 1951. 
Charles O. Handley, Jr., in continuation of his studies on the mammals 
of eastern United States, especially of the southern Appalachian high- 
lands, conducted field work in the Great Smoky Mountains National 
Park during April 1952. On June 15, 1952, Mr. Handley sailed from 
New York as a member of an expedition, sponsored and led by 
Laurence K. Marshall, of Cambridge, Mass., which will be engaged 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 23 

in anthropological and zoological field work over a period of several 
months in the Kalahari Desert region of South-West Africa. 

During April 1952, Dr. E. A. Lachner and William T. Leapley in- 
vestigated the ecology and life history of fresh- water fishes in the 
streams draining the mountain and Piedmont plateau sections of the 
Atlantic slope from Virginia southward to Georgia and thence west- 
ward in the streams of the Gulf coast drainage to Alabama. After 
crossing the Mississippi flatlands, field work was continued in the 
river systems of northeastern Texas and Oklahoma. On the return 
trip collections were made in the streams of the Ozark uplands in 
Arkansas and also in those of Kentucky. A collecting trip which 
extended from near Shreveport, La., to Kerrville and Laredo, Tex., 
and thence down the Rio Grande Valley to Padre Island and eastward 
along the Gulf coast, to procure insects prevalent only in the fall 
months, was made by Oscar L. Cartwright during September-October 
1951. At the request of the Pacific Science Board, National Research 
Council, Dr. Joseph P. E. Morrison of the division of moUusks was 
detailed early in June 1952 to make an ecological survey of Raroia 
Atoll in the Tuamotu Islands. 

From February to May 1952, Dr. Lyman B. Smith, through the 
cooperation of the Rockefeller Foundation and various Brazilian 
agencies, notably the Servi^o Nacional de Malaria, the Herbario 
"Barbosa Rodrigues," the Museu Nacional, the Jardin Botanico do 
Rio de Janeiro, and the Instituto de Botanico do Sao Paulo, carried 
on a field study of the relation of the Bromeliaceae to malarial control 
in eastern Brazil between Para and Santa Catarina. Dr. Egbert H. 
AValker returned to Washington, D. C, on September 30, 1951, after 
the completion of the botanical field work on the Ryukyu Islands spon- 
sored by the Pacific Science Board, National Research Council. In 
October 1951, Jason R. Swallen arrived in Honduras where, as the 
guest of the Escuela Agricola Panamericana, he was provided trans- 
portation that enabled him to collect grasses in the pine forests, open 
grasslands, and cloud forests, principally in the Departments of 
Morazan and El Paraiso. 

During the year seven field trips were made for the purpose of col- 
lecting fossils and studying geological strata. A. L. Bowsher and 
AVilliam T. Allen, with the assistance of members of the staff of the 
New Mexico Bureau of Mines, assembled invertebrate fossils from the 
Mississippian, Pennsylvanian, and Permian strata in the Sacramento 
Mountains, N. Mex. In the latter half of October, Dr. G. A. Cooper 
joined Dr. B. N. Cooper, of the Virginia Pol3'technic Institute, in a 
study of the facies relationships of nonmarine Ordovician bed^ in the 
southern Appalachians. Late in October 1951, A. L. Bowsher accom- 

226984 — 52 3 



24 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

panied Dr. Edwin Kirk, of the United States Geological Survey, to 
Alabama and Tennessee to obtain Mississippian crinoids. Dr. A. K. 
Loeblicli, eJr., secured foraminiferal samples from the uppermost 
Lower Cretaceous and basal Upper Cretaceous beds in northern Texas. 
Mississippian and Pennsylvanian invertebrate fossils were collected 
in northern Ohio and western Pennsylvania by A. L. Bowsher and 
William T. Allen in April 1952. Dr. C. L. Gazin continued his investi- 
gation, during the summer of 1951', of the mammalian f aunal horizons 
of the lower Eocene Knight formation in the Green River or Bridger 
basins of southwestern Wyoming and the lower Oligocene deposits in 
the Wind River basin. During October 1951, Dr. David H. Dunkle 
examined briefly reported occurrences of Cretaceous j&shes at Xilitla, 
San Luis Potosi, and Tlaxiaco, Oaxaca, Mexico. 

A grant of funds from Edwin A. Link, of Binghamton, N. Y., en- 
abled Mendel L. Peterson to join Mr. Link at Marathon, Fla., and 
participate in a survey of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Spanish 
and British ships which had been wrecked on the reefs between 
Tavernier Key and Vaca Key, and on West Sambo Reef lying off Key 
West. The 65-ton diesel-powered boat, Bea Diver^ owned and equip- 
ped by Mr. Link for this survey, afforded a base for diving operations. 
Cannon barrels and balls, iron hull fittings, iron nails, cast-iron ingots, 
and fragments of wood hulls were recovered from the wrecks on these 
reefs. 

VISITORS 

During the fiscal year 1952 there were 3,103,651 visitors to the 
Museum buildings, an increase of 486,425 over the attendance for 
1951. The average daily number of visitors was 8,767. On one day, 
May 31, 1952, 50,329 visitors were recorded. Attendance records for 
the three buildings show the following numbers of visitors: Smith- 
sonian Building, 661,278; Arts and Industries Building, 1,587,910; 
and Natural History Building, 854,463. April 1952 was the month 
of the largest attendance with 450,120 visitors; May 1952 was the next 
largest with 423,103; and August 1951 was third with 392,177. For 
the last 4 months of the fiscal year, March to June inclusive, a record 
was kept of groups of school children visiting the Museum buildings. 
During this 4-month interval, 159,784 children in 4,289 groups were 
recorded. 

CHANGES IN ORGANIZATION AND STAFF 

Dr. Paul L, Illg, associate curator, division of marine invertebrates, 
resigned on March 13, 1952, to accept a position in the department 
of zoology of the University of Washington at Seattle. On Octo- 
ber 19, 1951, Eugene J. Fite, assistant curator, division of graphic 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 25 

arts, transferred to the Federal Security Agency. George S. Thomas, 
associate curator, division of medicine and public health, resigned 
August 31, 1951, to enter private business. The vacancy in the section 
of manufactures and agricultural industries was filled on Septem- 
ber 17, 1951, by the appointment of Edward C. Kendall as associate 
curator. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Eemington Kj:llogg, Director, 

Dr. A. Wet:more, 

Secretary^ Smithsonian Institution, 



APPENDIX 2 
Report on the National Gallery of Art 

Sir : I have the honor to submit, on behalf of the Board of Trustees, 
the fifteenth annual report of the National Gallery of Art, for the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1952. This report is made pursuant to the 
provisions of section 5 (d) of Public Kesolution No. 14, Seventy-fifth 
Congress, first session, approved March 24, 1937 (50 Stat. 51). 

ORGANIZATION 

The statutory members of the Board of Trustees of the National 
Gallery of Ai-t are the Chief Justice of the United States, the Secretary 
of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, and the Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution, ex officio. The five general trustees con- 
tinuing in office during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1952, vrere 
Samuel H. Kress, Ferdinand Lammot Belin, Duncan Phillips, Chester 
Dale, and Paul Mellon. The Board of Trustees held its annual meet- 
ing on May 6, 1952. Samuel H. Kress was reelected President and 
Ferdinand Lammot Belin Vice President, to serve for the ensuing 
year. Donald D. Shepard continued to serve during the year as 
Advisor to the Board. 

All the executive officers of the Gallery continued in office during 
the year : 

Huntington Cairns, Secretary-Treasurer. 
David E. Finley, Director. 
Harry A. McBride, Administrator. 
Huntington Cairns, General Counsel. 
John Walker, Chief Curator. 
Macgill James, Assistant Director. 

The three standing committees of the Board, as constituted at the 
annual meeting May 6, 1952, were as follows : 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Chief Justice of the United States, Fred M. Vinson, Chairman. 

Samuel H. Kress, Vice Chairman. 

Ferdinand Lammot Belin. 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Dr. Alexander Wetmore. 

Paul Mellon. 

26 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 27 

FINANCE COMMITTEE 

Secretary of the Treasury, John W. Snyder, Chairman. 
Samuel H. Kress, Vice Chairman. 
Ferdinand Lammot Belin. 
Chester Dale. 
Paul Mellon. 

ACQUISITIONS COMMITTEE 

Ferdinand Lammot Belin, Chairman. 
Duncan Phillips. 
Chester Dale. 
Paul Mellon. 
David E. Finley. 

At the annual meeting on May 6, 1952, the Board of Trustees pro- 
posed an amendment to section 5, article VI of the bylaws of the 
Trustees' "Constitution of Acquisitions Committee" reducing the num- 
ber of ex officio members from three to two and increasing the elected 
members from two to three. The amendment provided further that 
the Vice President of the Gallery shall be Chairman of the Acquisi- 
tions Committee. On June 10, 1952, the Board of Trustees adopted 
the proposed amendment and elected Paul Mellon to fill the vacancy 
existing on the Committee as the result of the amendment. 

PERSONNEL 

On June 30, 1952, the Government employees on the staff of the 
National Gallery of Art numbered 301, as compared with 308 em- 
ployees as of June 30, 1951. The United States Civil Service regula- 
tions govern the appointment of employees paid from appropriated 
public funds. 

APPROPRIATIONS 

For the fiscal year ended June 30, 1952, the Congress of the United 
States appropriated for the National Gallery of Art $1,240,000 to be 
used for salaries and expenses in the operation and upkeep of the 
Gallery, the protection and care of works of art acquired by the Board 
of Trustees, and all administrative expenses incident thereto as 
authorized by section 4 (a) of Public Resolution 14, Seventy-fifth 
Congress, first session, approved March 24, 1937 (50 Stat. 51). This 
sum includes the regular appropriation of $1,154,000 and a supple- 
mental appropriation of $86,000. The supplemental appropriation 
was necessitated by increased pay costs authorized by Public Law 201, 
Eighty-second Congress, approved October 24, 1951. 



28 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

From these appropriations the following expenditures and encum- 
brances were incurred : 

Personal services $1» 096, 425. 00 

Printing and reproduction 4,528.75 

Supplies, equipment, etc 137, 863. 11 

Unobligated balance 1. 183. 14 

Total 1. 240, 000. 00 

ATTENDANCE 

During the fiscal year 1952 there were 1,522,596 visitors to the Gal- 
lery, an average daily attendance of about 4,183. This compares with 
1,503,148 visitors during 1951, an increase of 19,448. Since March 17, 
1941, when the Gallery was opened to the public, to June 30, 1952, there 
liave been 20,284,013 visitors. 

ACCESSIONS 

During the fiscal year the Gallery received 1,891 accessions as gifts, 
loans, or deposits. Most of the paintings and a number of the prints 
were placed on exhibition. 

GIFTS 

PAINTINGS 

The Board of Trustees on July 11, 1951, accepted two paintings: 
"Right and Left" by Winslow Homer and "John James Audubon" by 
John Woodhouse Audubon, both gifts from the Avalon Foundation. 
On the same date the Board accepted from E. J. L. Hallstrom 10 paint- 
ings by Audubon : Farmyard Fowls, Black-footed Ferret, Bull, Arctic 
Hare, Weasel, Long-tailed Red Fox, Sharp-tailed Sparrow, Orchard 
Oriole, Yellow Warbler, and Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker. On 
August 24 the Board accepted for a National Portrait Gallery from 
an anonymous donor the portrait of Gen. George C. Marshall by 
Thomas Stephens. On December 5 the Board of Trustees accepted 
"Portrait of a Man and Boy" by Tintoretto, the gift of Samuel L. 
Fuller, and "Gypsy Girl with Mandolin" by Corot, the gift of Count 
Pecci-Blunt. Also on this date the Board accepted a portrait of John 
Cardinal McCloskey by Healy from Miss Elizabeth McCloskey 
Cleary. On December 17 the Board accepted the painting "Rape of 
Proserpine" by Turner from Mrs. Watson B. Dickerman. On Janu- 
ary 15, 1952, the Board accepted from the Avalon Foundation the 
portrait of Alexander Hamilton by Trumbull. The Board accepted 
on May 6 the gift of two paintings from Duncan Phillips : "Singing 
Party" by Hogarth and "Allegorical Landscape" by a follower of Par- 
migianino. On this same date the Board received the portrait of Mrs. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 29 

Mathilde Townsend Welles by Sargent, the bequest of Mrs. Welles. 
The Board received two portraits by Alvan Clark, "Thomas Whitte- 
more" and "Lovice C. Whittemore," from the Thomas Whittemore 
estate. 

SCULPTURE 

On December 6, 1952, the Board of Trustees accepted from Lessing 
J. Rosenwald a group of 15 bronzes by Daumier. 

PRINTS AND DRAWINGS 

On July 11, 1951, the Board of Trustees accepted from E. J. L. 
Hallstrom 18 miscellaneous prints by Audubon. On October 16 the 
Board accepted from Lessing J. Rosenwald a group of 244 prints and 
drawings and a group of 1,006 historical portrait prints, to be added to 
his gift to the Gallery. On the same date the Board accepted from 
Mrs. Andrew Carey 23 prints and drawings, and from Paul Rosenberg 
a drawing for the painting "Mme. Moitessier" by Ingres. The Board 
on December 5 accepted 202 prints and drawings from Lessing J. 
Rosenwald, and on December 17 the Board approved the addition of 41 
prints by Alphonse Legros to the gift of George Matthew Adams. 

EXCHANGE OF WORKS OF ART 

On October 16, 1951, the Board of Trustees accepted the offer of Les- 
sing J. Rosenwald to exchange the Rembrandt etching "The Presenta- 
tion in the Temple" for a superior impression of the same work. 

WORKS OF ART ON LOAN 

During the fiscal year 1952 the following works of art were received 
on loan by the National Gallery of Art. 

From Artist 

C. S. Gulbenkian, Lisbon, Portugal; 

Eight gold medallions Greco-Roman, third cen- 
tury A. D. 
Chester Dale, New York, N. Y. : 

Lady Liston Stuart. 

The Lone Tenement Bellows. 

The Hunter J. L. David. 

The Laundresses Steinlen. 

Houses of Parliament Monet. 

New York Street Scene in Winter Henri. 

Portrait of a Lady in Red Theus. 

Portrait said to be Mrs. Thomas Palmer Feke. 

The Artist's Garden Blakelock. 

Black Hawk C.King. 

Spring Woods Ranger. 

Boy on the Rocks Rousseau. 

The Windmill Ryder. 

Moonlight Weir. 



30 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

From Artist 

Chester Dale, New York, N. Y. — Continued 

The Basket Dufy. 

View of Fez Dufy. 

The Communicant Carriere. 

Seated Nude Matisse. 

In the Rain Hassam. 

Soated Nude Hassam. 

Cafe Scene Rouanlt. 

Nude with Raised Arms Rouault. 

Oranges and Marigolds Vallotton. 

Basque Landscape Oudot. 

Nude Woman with Flowers and Fruit Braque. 

Nude Woman with Fruit Braque. 

Peonies Braque. 

Still Life: The Table Braque. 

Still Life: le Jour Braque. 

Conversation among the Ruins de Chirico. 

Harlequin Derain. 

Woman in an Armchair Derain. 

Head of a Girl Derain. 

Still Life Derain. 

The Old Bridge Derain. 

Flowers in a Vase Derain. 

Head of a Woman Derain. 

Still Life Dufresne. 

Judgment of Paris Dufresne. 

Nude, Reclining Dufy. 

Saint Janet Dufy. 

Vendor of Ices Gromaire. 

Woman with Mirror Leger. 

In the Park Laurencin. 

The Big Cloud Lurcat. 

Odalisque with Raised Arms Matisse. 

Woman with Exotic Plant Matisse. 

Les Gorges du Loup Matisse. 

Still Life: Apples on Pink Table Cloth Matisse. 

The Plumed Hat Matisse. 

The Musician Marcoussis. 

Leon Bakst Modigliani. 

Mme. Amedee (Woman with Cigarette) Modigliani. 

Adrienne (Woman with Bangs) Modigliani. 

Woman with Red Hair Modigliani. 

Gypsy Woman with Baby Modigliani. 

The Market Oudot. 

The Lovers Picasso. 

The Tragedy Picasso. 

The Gourmet Picasso. 

Two Youths Picasso. 

Juggler with Still Life Picasso. 

Family of Saltimbanques Picasso. 

Still Life Picasso. 

Classical Head Picasso. 

Mme. Picasso Picasso. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 31 

From Artixt 

Chester Dale, New York, N. Y. — Continued 

Portrait of a Boy Soutine. 

The Stairway, Belleville Quizet. 

Bathers Tondu. 

Marizy-Sainte-Genevieve Utrillo. 

Church of Saint-Severin Utrillo. 

Vase of Flowers Vlaminck. 

The River Vlaminck. 

Still Life with Lemons Vlaminck. 

Old Port of Marseille Vlaminck. 

Carrieres-Saint-Denis Vlaminck. 

U. S. Department of State 
(Charles Loeser Bequest) : 

Still Life of Apples Cezanne. 

Still Life with Skull Cezanne. 

La Sainte Victoire Cezanne. 

House Beside a Lake Cezanne. 

The Forest Cezanne. 

The Hill Cezanne. 

Boathouse on the River Cezanne. 

Landscape with a Tower Cezanne. 

Mrs. William C. Johnson, Frederick, Md. : 

Portrait of Monroe Vanderlyn. 

Patrick Tracy Jackson, Cambridge, Mass. : 

Patrick Tracy Trumbull. 

Walter C. B. Morse, Glenwood, Md. : 

Francis Goodloe Harper i Samuel F. B. Morse. 

Robert Woods Bliss, Washington, D. C. : 

23 objects of Pre-Columbian art. 

LOANED WORKS OF ART RETURNED 

The following works of art on loan were returned during the fiscal 
3^ear 1952 : 

To Artist 

Chauncey Stillman, New York, N. Y. : 

A Halberdier Pontormo. 

Mrs. Robert Brookings, Washington, D. C. : 

Isabel Valle Sargent. 

Isabella H. Sargeant Sargent. 

WORKS OF ART LENT 

During the fiscal year 1952 the Gallery lent the following works of 
art for exhibition purposes: 

To Artist 

American Federation of Arts (Berlin Exhibition) : 

George Washington (Vaughan-Sinclair) Stuart. 

Atlanta Art Association, High Museum, Atlanta, Ga. : 

Alexander Hamilton Trumbull. 

Jane Browne Copley. 

Williamina Moore Feke. 



32 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

To Artist 

Atlanta Art Association, High Museum, Atlanta, Ga.— Continued 

John Philip de Haas Peal, C. W. 

Matilda Crujrer Stuart. 

George Pollock Stuart. 

Mrs. George Pollock Stuart. 

Robert Thew Stuart. 

Luke White Stuart. 

Ann Hopkinson Sully. 

Francis Hopkinson Sully. 

Self Portrait West. 

Mary Walton Morris Wollaston. 

William Rickart Stuart. 

William S. Mount Elliott. 

Josias Allston Theus. 

Thomas Paine Jarvis. 

Henry Clay J. J. Audubon. 

Henry Laurens Copley. 

Andrew Jackson Ralph Earl. 

General Moultrie Peale, C. W. 

Pocahontas British School. 

Worcester Art Museum, Worcester, Mass. : 

A Young Woman (Costume Study) Durer. 

National Audubon Society, New York, N. Y. : 

Bull Audubon. 

Arctic Hare Audubon. 

Portraits, Inc., New York, N. Y. : 

Andrew W. Mellon Oswald Birley. 

Phillips Gallery, Washington, D. C. : 

Storm over Taos (water color) Marin. 

Echo Lake (water color) Marin. 

Woodlawn Association, Woodlawn, Va. : 

William Thornton Stuart. 

Mrs. William Thornton Stuart. 

George Washington at Princeton Polk. 

Senate House Museum, Kingston, N. Y. : 

Zachariah Schoonmaker Vanderlyn. 

The Return of Rip Van Winkle Quidor. 

EXHIBITIONS 

The following exhibitions were held at the National Gallery of 
Art during the fiscal year 1952 : 

American Paintings from the Collection of the National Gallery of Art. 
Continued from previous fiscal year through September 10, 1951. 

Audubon Paintings and Prints from the Collection of the National Gallery 
of Art. September 23 through October 28, 1951. 

Index of American Design. Water-color renderings. November 4 through 
November 25, 1951. 

Fifteenth-century Graphic Art. From the Rosenwald Collection, including 
woodcuts, broadsides, a famous printed textile, block books, and early illustrated 
woodcut books. December 2, 1951, through February 3, 1952. 

French Paintings. Lent to the National Gallery of Art by Capt. Edward 
Molyneux of France. March 2 through May 11, 1952. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 33 

Lithographs by Toulouse-Lautrec. From the Rosenwald Collection. Opened 
May 18, 1952. 

French Eighteenth-century Aquatints. From the Widener Collection. Opened 
June 3, 1952. 

The following exhibitions were displayed in the cafeteria cor- 
ridor of the National Gallery of Art during the fiscal year 1952 : 

Engravings by "William Blake. Gift of anonymous donor. Continued from 
previous fiscal year through January 20, 1952. 

Etchings by Jacques Callot. The Rosenwald Collection. January 22 through 
April 19, 1952. 

Etchings and drypoints by Alphonse Legros. The George Matthew Adams 
Collection. Opened April 19, 1952. 

TROWELING EXHIBITIONS 

Rosenwald Collection. — Special exhibitions of prints from the 
Rosenwald Collection were circulated to the following places during 
the fiscal year : 

U. S. Department of State Exhibition in Germany: 

Contemporary American Prints. 

August 1951- January 1952. 
University of Alabama, University, Ala. : 

Exhibition of Picasso Prints. 

September-October 1951. 
University of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla. : 

English Water-color Exhibition. 

October 1951. 
Maryville College, Maryville, Tenn. : 

French Xineteenth-century Exhibition. 

October 1951. 
Pasadena Art Institute, Pasadena, Calif. : 

Mary Cassatt Prints. 

October 1951. 
University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa. ; 

Selections from the Rosenwald Collection. 

October 1951-January 1952. 
Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, Ohio : 

Lyonel Feininger Prints. 

October-November 1951. 
Fogg Museum of Art, Cambridge, Mass. : 

Cranach Woodcuts. 

November 1951. 
Carnegie Institute. Department of Fine Arts, Pittsburgh, Pa. : 

Old Master Drawings, French Exhibition. 

November-December 1951. 
Worcester Art Museum, Worcester, Mass. : 

The Practice of Drawing, Old Master Drawings. 

November 1951-Jannary 1952. 
Philadelphia Art Alliance, Philadelphia, Pa. : 

Beckmann Prints. 

December 1951. 



34 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 2 

C aruegie Institute, Department of Fine Arts, Pittsburgh, Pa. : 

Vollard Exhibition. 

January 1052. 
Milwaukee Art Institute, Milwaukee, Wis. : 

Blake Exhibition. 

January 1952. 
Birmin.uhaui Museum of Art, Birmingham, Ala. : 

Vollard E^chibition. 

February-March 1952. 
Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, Pa.: 

100 Masterpieces of the Print. 

February-March 1952. 
Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis, Minn. ; 

Water Colors by Old Masters. 

April 15-June 15, 1952. 
Wesleyan University Art Department, Middletown, Conn. : 

1 Picasso — Picasso-Klee Exhibition. 

May 12-30, 1952. 
Dusch-Reisinger Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. : 

'Durer, Before and After," Sixteenth-century Prints. 

May 9-June 19, 1952. 
U. S. Department of State, Washington, D. C. : 

4 American Contemporaries for Lugano. 
The White House, Washington, D. C. : 

Permanent loan exhibition of 21 prints. 

Index of American Design. — During the fiscal year 1952, 38 travel- 
ing exhibitions of original water-color renderings of this collection, 
with 78 bookings, were sent to the following States and countries : 

Number of 
State Ewhil)ition8 

Alabama 3 

Arkansas 2 

Connecticut 4 

District of Columbia 7 

Florida 1 

Iowa 4 

Kentucky 1 

Maryland 2 

Massachusetts 2 

Missouri 1 

New Hampshire 11 

New Jersey 1 

New York 10 

North Carolina 7 

Pennsylvania 1 

South Carolina 1 

Tennessee 5 

Utah 1 

Vermont 9 

Virginia 1 

Wisconsin 1 

Europe (except Western Germany) 1 

Germany and Austria 1 

Western Germany 1 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 36 

CURATORIAL ACTIVITIES 

The Curatorial Department accessioned 1,653 new gifts to tlie 
Gallery during the fiscal year 1952. Advice was given regarding 307 
works of art brought to the Gallery for opinion, and 56 visits to other 
collections were made by members of the staff for either expert opinion 
or in connection with offers of gifts. About 2,000 inquiries requiring 
research were answered verbally and by letter. During the year seven 
individual lectures were given by members of the curatorial staff. 
Miss Elizabeth Mongan gave a lecture series to students of Beaver 
College, and Charles M. Richards conducted two courses in art history 
under the auspices of the Department of Agriculture. Mr. Richards 
attended the annual meeting of the American Association of Museums 
and served as an expert in a round-table discussion of registrarial 
problems. Miss Katharine Shepard was sent as a delegate from the 
Washington Society to the annual meeting of the Archaeological In- 
stitute of America. Perry C. Cott was elected to the Board of Gov- 
ernors of this Institute. Mr. Cott arranged a schedule of tours of 
United States museums for visiting foreigners under the International 
Exchange of Persons Division, State Department. Erwin O. 
Christensen made examinations of objects in the Widener collection in 
connection with the publication of the handbook, "Jewels and Rock 
Crystals." Mr. Christensen also made a survey and wrote a report 
on the condition of the marquetry of the furniture in the Widener 
collection for restoration purposes. 

Special installations were prepared for the eight gold medallions 
lent to the Gallery by C. S. Gulbenkian, and for Pre-Columbian objects 
lent by Robert Woods Bliss. 

The cataloging and filing of photographs in the Richter archive 
continued to make progress. The cataloging of photographs in the 
Stieglitz collection was completed in the spring ; 1,436 cards were made. 

RESTORATION AND REPAIR OF WORKS OF ART 

Necessary restoration and repair of works of art in the Gallery's 
collections were made by Francis Sullivan, Resident Restorer to the 
Gallery. The work was completed in the Restorer's studio in the 
Gallery. 

PUBLICATIONS 

During the year Huntington Cairns contributed an article on "The 
Humanities and the Law" to the New York University Law Review, 
and reviews of volumes I, II, and III of "The Psychology of Art," by 
Andre Malraux, to the Virginia Quarterly Review ; "Caravan : Tlie 
Story of the Middle East," by Carleton S. Coon, to the Scientific 
Monthly; and "The Spirit of Liberty: Papers and Addresses of 
Learned Hand," edited by Irving Dilliard, to the Baltimore Evening 



36 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

Sun. He also delivered a series of lectures at the Johns Hopkins 
University on "The Theory of Criticism." 

An article by John Walker entitled "Your National Gallery of Art" 
appeared in the January issue of the National Geographic Magazine. 
Mrs. John Shapley contributed an article, "Benozzo Gozzoli's Dance 
of Salome," to the Gazette des Beaux- Arts, February 1952. Perry B. 
Cott contributed an article, "Italian Art in the National Gallery, 
Washington," for Le Vie del Mondo, May 1952. Mr. Cott also pre- 
pared the catalog "French Paintings from the Molyneux Collection," 
April 1952. Miss Elizabeth Mongan wrote "Introduction for Bo- 
tanical Books, Prints and Drawings from the Collection of Mrs. Roy 
Arthur Hunt," October 1951. Miss Mongan also wrote "Introduc- 
tion," Reder, New York, Borgenricht Gallery. 

The new book "Great Paintings from the National Gallery of Art," 
by Huntington Cairns and John Walker, to be published by the Mac- 
millan Co., will be ready for delivery in November 1952. A new 
Handbook, No. 3, on "Objects of Medieval Art" by Erwin O. Christen- 
sen, is also on order. 

A book for hobbyists, entitled "Early American Designs : Ceramics," 
was written by Erwin O. Christensen; and two articles on adult art 
education programs were written by Miss Lois Bingham and Grose 
Evans for the Walters Art Gallery in Baltimore. 

During the fiscal year 1952 the Publications Fund added five new 
color postcards and a new ll-x-14" color reproduction to the list 
available, and 59 more of the large color plates were made for use in 
the new book "Great Paintings from the National Gallery of Art," 
and eventual use for ll-x-14" prints. Four new Christmas card 
color plates were also produced. 

A new guidebook, "Looking at Italian Pictures in the National 
Gallery of Art," was issued, and Mr. Walker's booklet "Paintings 
from America" was placed on sale. The Handbook No. 1 went into 
a third large printing, and a second printing of the "European Paint- 
ings from the Gulbenkian Collection" was received. Before Christ- 
mas, a calendar entitled "Famous Paintings" and a Spanish-language 
guide to collections of art in the United States, both including a large 
number of Gallery works of art, were placed on sale in the information 
rooms. 

During this period, reproductions of 10 pieces of sculpture from the 
Gallery's collection were made available for the first time and have 
been well received. Three more recordings by the National Gallery 
Symphony Orchestra were also placed on sale, as well as a new set 
of Index of American Design playing cards. A checklist of the 
Molyneux paintings was made available during the exhibition here 
in the winter. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 37 

EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM 

The attendance for the general, congressional, and special tours 
and the "Picture of the Week" totaled 36,756, while the attendance 
at the 48 auditorium lectures on Sunday afternoons was approximately 
14,284 during the fiscal year 1952. 

Special tours, lectures, and conferences arranged for by appointment 
were given to 213 groups and individuals. The total number of 
people served in this manner was 5,651, an increase of 2,093 over last 
year. These special appointments were made for such groups as 
Department of State trainees for overseas cultural service, Germans 
sponsored by the orientation program of the American Council of 
Education functioning under the point-4 program of the Department 
of State, groups from various other governmental departments, high- 
school and college students, women's clubs. Brownies, Scouts, Sunday 
school classes, and groups from national conventions meeting in the 
city. This service also included the training of Junior League vol- 
unteers who thereafter conducted tours for art students in the Wash- 
ington high schools and a training program for members of the 
Arlington American Association of University Women who served 
as volunteer docents and conducted tours in the Gallery for all the 
Arlington public-school children in grades two through six. 

The staff of the Education Office delivered 26 lantern-slide lectures 
and four film lectures, while guest speakers delivered 17 lectures. 
During March and April, Jacques Maritain delivered the first annual 
series of the A. W. Mellon Lectures in the Fine Arts on the theme "Cre- 
ative Intuition in Art and Poetry." 

During the past year 124 persons borrowed 4,853 slides from the 
lending collection, which contains more than 10,000 slides. 

Two additional 16-mm. prints of the film "The National Gallery of 
Art" were made. Seven prints are now available for circulation. 
The film was lent 73 times during the year. Two sets of slides, 2- x -2" 
size, and one set of standard-size slides of the "Christmas Story in 
Art," a mimeographed lecture illustrated by 34 slides, were available 
for circulation. These were in constant use during the Christmas 
season. 

The monthly Calendar of Events announcing all the Gallery activ- 
ities, including notices of exhibitions, new publications, lectures, 
gallery talks, tours, and concerts, was mailed to more than 4,000 
persons. 

LIBRARY 

Books, pamphlets, periodicals, and subscriptions purchased out of 
the fund presented to the National Gallery of Art by Paul Mellon 
totaled 438 during the fiscal year 1952. Gifts included 285 books and 
pamphlets, while 614 books, etc., were received on exchange from other 



38 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 2 

institutions. In addition 264 photographs of works of art were re- 
ceived on exchange. A total of 301 copies of the illustrated catalog 
of "Paintings and Sculpture from the Kress Collection," and 299 
copies of the catalog "Renaissance Bronzes from the Kress Collection" 
were sent on exchange to other museums. The Library is the deposi- 
tory for photographs of the works of art in the collections of the 
National Gallery of Art. A stock of reproductions is maintained for 
use in research occupations by the curatorial and other departments 
of the Gallery ; for the dissemination of knowledge to qualified sources ; 
for exchange with other art institutions ; for publicity ; and for sale 
at the request of any interested individual. 

The photographic collection has grown with new bequests and 
loans made to the National Gallery of Art during the year. A sub- 
stantial addition has occurred in the instance of the new loans from 
Chester Dale. The photographic file continues to present a complete 
pictorial record for reference to all the objects in the Gallery as well 
as to provide limited quantities of 8-x-lO" prints for distribution. 

During the year 641 persons other than the Gallery staff used the 
Library for research. 

INDEX OF AMERICAN DESIGN 

During the fiscal year 1952 a total of 9 new exhibits containing 396 
renderings were completed. Permission was granted for the repro- 
duction of 183 plates, while 743 photographs were distributed for 
use by designers, possible publication, research, study, and publicity. 
A total of 1,016 slides were circulated and several designs from the 
Index were adapted for commercial use on drapery material, furni- 
ture, and playing cards. The entire collection of 1,666 2-x-2" color 
slides was organized into 20 loan sets and 1 miscellaneous group for 
loan to individual lecturers, museums, schools, and colleges. 

MAINTENANCE OF THE BUILDING AND GROUNDS 

The usual work in connection with the care and maintenance of 
the building, its mechanical equipment, and the grounds was continued 
throughout the year. Considerable redecorating was done, including 
the painting of several galleries and offices. Flowering and foliage 
plants, totaling in number 5,869 and valued at approximately $7,700, 
were grown in the moats and were used for decoration in the garden 
courts throughout the year. 

The lawn-sprinkler system was extended to include several grass 
areas between Constitution Avenue and the sidewalk adjacent thereto. 

During the winter months, all the refrigeration machines were given 
an annual overhauling which included the balancing of the rotors, 
the cleaning and testing of new parts, and the necessary repairs in 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 39 

order to place them in condition for the summer months. During 
the process laboratory tests revealed that two of the machines needed 
certain replacements. This condition was called to the attention of 
the manufacturers, and the Gallery was informed by them on June 
20, 1052, as well as by the Vermilya-Brown Co., that the condition 
was serious and it would be necessary to replace the condensers, com- 
pressors, and coolers in all three machines. Estimates obtained 
indicated that this work would cost about $187,500. These funds were 
made available in a supplemental appropriation bill by the Eighty- 
second Congress for use for this purpose during the fiscal year 1953. 

Two sections of skylight, representing an area of approximately 
850 square feet, were completely overhauled, and this work of skylight 
repair is being continued. 

The American District Telegraph Co.'s automatic fire-alarm sys- 
tem was extended to the two storage areas on the 81-foot level north 
and south of the rotunda. 

The Gallery's staff did a considerable amount of work in connection 
with the new storage vault, especially in the installation of steel storage 
racks. 

CONSTRUCTION OF NEW GALLERIES 

Work under the contract entered into on July 31, 1950, for the con- 
struction of galleries 35, 35A, 40, 41, and 41A in the southwest end 
of the building was completed in January 1952. Private funds were 
made available for this purpose. 

CONSTRUCTION OF STORAGE FACILITIES 

The completion of the work under the contract entered into March 
1, 1951, for building a storage room adjacent to the Gallery building 
in the southeast moat, has been delayed because of the difficulty en- 
countered in obtaining certain materials called for in the specifications, 
and it is now anticipated that this project will be completed late in 
the summer of 1952. 

Work under the contract entered into on March 2, 1951, to build 
a storage building and reconstruct a cottage on the site of Randolph- 
Macon Woman's College, Lynchburg, Va., was completed in April 
1952. Both of these projects were made possible by private funds 
donated for these purposes. 

OTHER ACTIVITIES 

A total of 43 Sunday evening concerts were given during the fiscal 
year in the West Garden Court. The National Gallery Orchestra, 
under the direction of Richard Bales, played 11 concerts at the Gallery 

226984—52 4 



40 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

with 4 additional performances in Charlottesville and Middleburg, 
Va. Two of the orchestral concerts at the Gallery were made possible 
by the Music Performance Trust Fund of the American Federation 
of Musicians. The orchestra also gave two children's concerts at the 
Corcoran Gallery of Art. During April the Sunday evenings were 
devoted to the Gallery's Ninth Annual American Music Festival, 
featuring 34 works by 15 American composers. Most of the concerts 
were broadcast in their entirety by Station WCFM, Washington, and 
those of the National Gallery Orchestra and the American Music 
Festival were carried by the Continental FM Network. The Na- 
tional Gallery Orchestra made two long-playing records, one of which 
was selected by the New York Times for its list of outstanding record- 
ings of the year 1951. During August and September 1951 the Na- 
tional Gallery Orchestra played the first regular series of symphonic 
music on television as part of the NBC "Heritage" programs of art 
and music originating in the Gallery. This was selected by the New 
York Times as the finest serious music program of 1951 on television. 

The photographic laboratory of the Gallery produced 14,028 prints, 
390 black-and-white slides, and 928 color slides during the fiscal year, 
in addition to 3,214 negatives, as well as X-rays, infrared, and ultra- 
violet photographs. 

During the fiscal year 1952, a total of 2,698 press releases were issued 
with respect to Gallery activities, while 161 permits to copy paintings, 
and 240 permits to photograph in the Gallery were issued. 

OTHER GIFTS 

Gifts of books on works of art and related material were made to 
the Gallery by Paul Mellon and others. Gifts of money were made 
during the fiscal year 1952 by the A. W. Mellon Educational and 
Charitable Trust, the Avalon Foundation, and the Old Dominion 
Foundation. An additional cash bequest was received from the estate 
of the late William Nelson Cromwell. 

AUDIT OF PRIVATE FUNDS OF THE GALLERY 

An audit of the private funds of the Gallery has been made for 
the fiscal year ended June 30, 1952, by Price, Waterhouse & Co., public 
accountants, and the certificate of that company on its examination 
of the accounting records maintained for such funds will be forwarded 
to the Gallery. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Huntington Cairns, Secretary. 
The Secretary, 

Smithsonian Institution. 



APPENDIX 3 
Report on the National Collection of Fine Arts 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the activities 
of the National Collection of Fine Arts for the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1952 : 

THE SMITHSONIAN ART COMMISSION 

The twenty-ninth annual meeting of the Smithsonian Art Commis- 
sion was held in the Regents' Room of the Smithsonian Building on 
Tuesday, December 4, 1951. The members present were : Paul Man- 
ship, chairman; Alexander Wetmore, secretary (member, ex officio) ; 
Robert Woods Bliss, Gilmore D. Clarke, George H. Edgell, David 
E. Finley, George Hewitt Myers, Archibald Wenley, Lawrence Grant 
White, Andrew Wyeth, and Mahonri Young. Thomas M. Beggs, 
Director, National Collection of Fine Arts, and Paul V. Gardner, 
curator of ceramics. National Collection of Fine Arts, were also 
present. 

The Commission recommended the reelection of George H. Edgell, 
Lloyd Goodrich, and Lawrence Grant White for the usual 4-year 
period. As James E. Eraser had been unable to attend the meetings 
for several years, his status was changed to that of member emeritus. 
The secretary was instructed to send a letter on behalf of the Com- 
mission expressing thanks for Mr. Eraser's services and a desire for 
his presence at its future meetings. The Commission recommended 
to the Board of Regents the appointment of Walker Hancock to 
membership. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: Paul 
Manship, chairman; Robert Woods Bliss, vice chairman, and Dr. 
Alexander Wetmore, secretary. The following were elected members 
of the executive committee for the ensuing year: David E. Finley, 
chairman, Robert Woods Bliss, Gilmore D. Clarke, and George Hewitt 
Myers. Paul Manship, as chairman of the Commission, and Dr. 
Alexander Wetmore, as secretary of the Commission, are ex officio 
members of the executive committee. 

Mr. Beggs reported that gifts received during 1951 include a fund 
established by Mrs. Laura Dreyfus-Barney for the purpose of main- 
taining a lending collection to advance the appreciation and creation 
of art throughout the United States. The capital of $15,000 is to 

41 



42 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

be increased during the next 3 years by annual additions of $5,000. 
Ultimately the fund will help substantially the National Collection 
of Fine Arts in carrying out the authorization in its act of estab- 
lishment for the circulation of traveling exhibitions. 

The Barney fund, in conjunction with a grant made last June by 
the Department of State for the assembling of 12 exhibitions to be sent 
to West Germany and Austria, has permitted the Institution to obtain 
the services of Mrs. John A. Pope and Miss Gladys E. Acton, who 
will handle, under the direction of the National Collection of Fine 
Arts, the details of the new Smithsonian Traveling Exhibition Service. 
With the National Gallery of Art and the Freer Gallery of Art serving 
as national repositories for rare and valuable paintings, sculptures, 
and art objects of the best periods of European and oriental art, it is 
now the acknowledged responsibility of the National Collection of 
Fine Arts to encourage contemporary art and artists. 

The Commission accepted the following objects for the National 
Collection of Fine Arts : 

Oil, Nancy, by George DeForest Brush, N. A. (1855-1941). Henry Ward 
Ranger bequest. 

Oil, The Figurine, by William M. Paxton, N. A. (1869-1941). Henry Ward 
Ranger bequest. 

Two sculptures, Baboon (in limestone) and Antelope (in black Belgian 
marble), by Bessie S. Callender (1889-1951). Gift of her husband, Harold 
Callender. 

Three pieces of modern glass, Tritonschale and Meerweibachale, both engraved, 
c. 1875, Austrian, made by Lobmeyr Factory, and an enameled perfume bottle, 
designed by Jfimile Gall4. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Hugh J. Smith, Jr. 

Five prize-winning pieces of ceramics from the Second Annual Exhibition 
of Ceramic Art, 1951: Large bowl, black glaze, by Mary Tilton Brammell; 
small rice bowl, brushwork, by Kathleen P. Lewis ; stoneware bowl, green glaze, 
by Helen O'Brien ; bowl, brown glaze, by Lisle Pursel; and jug with stopper, by 
Alta C. Fuller. Gift of the Kiln Club. 

Miniature, water color on ivory, The Last Earl of Glencairn, by an undeter- 
mined artist. Gift of William Mouat Hannay. 

THE CATHERINE WALDEN MYER FUND 

Eight miniatures, water color on ivory, were acquired from the 
fund established through the bequest of the late Catherine Walden 
Myer, as follows : 

79. Miss Margaret Liddell, by Nathaniel Plimer ; from Edmund Bury, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

80. William Lampas, by undetermined artist; from Miss Jennie E. Doolittle, 
Washington, D. C. 

81. Gentleman in Red Coat, attributed to Gervase Spencer. 

82. Gentleman with a Black Coat, attributed to John Thomas Barber 
Beaumont. 

83. Jjimes Wilson (1742-98), Signer of the Declaration of Independence, by 
undetermined artist ; from T. R. Montgomery, Chagrin Falls, Ohio, and brothers. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 43 

84. Ed Scarlett, by James Scouler. 

85. Mrs. John Jordan, Jr., by J. Henry Brown. 

86. Unknown Woman, by undetermined artist. 

Nos. 81 and 82 were acquired from Dr. Daniel B. Kirby, New York, 
N. Y., and Nos. 84, 85, and 86 were acquired from Dorsey Griffith, 
New Market, Md., through Ruel P. Tolman, Washington, D. C. 

STUDY COLLECTION 

A cameo glass vase, designed by fimile Galle, France, 1895, the gift 
of Mr. and Mrs. Hugh J . Smith, Jr., was added to the study collection. 

LOANS ACCEPTED 

Twenty-two pieces of modern glass were lent by Mr. and Mrs. Hugh 
J. Smith, Jr., Scarsdale, N. Y., as follows: 7 French, 1 Finnish, 1 
Dutch, 3 Swedish, and 4 American, on November 20, 1951 ; 4 Swedish 
on December 27, 1951, and 2 Swedish on March 17, 1952. 

A jeweled collar of gold, designed with peacock-feather motif, and 
executed by Mellerio, Paris, was lent by Natalie Clifford Barney and 
Laura Dreyfus-Barney on June 13, 1952. 

LOANS TO OTHER MUSEUMS AND ORGANIZATIONS 

Two oils, At Nature's Mirror, by Ealph A. Blakelock, and Moon- 
light, by Albert P. Eyder, were lent to the National Academy of 
Design, to be included in the exhibition American Tradition, 1800- 
1900, from December 2 to 23, 1951. (Returned January 3, 1952.) 

Three oils, A Gentlewoman, Upland Pasture, and Portrait of Wyatt 
Eaton, by J. Alden Weir, were lent to the American Academy of Arts 
and Letters, for an exhibition during February and March 1952. 
(Returned April 8, 1952.) 

Oil, At Nature's Mirror, by Ralph A. Blakelock, was lent to the 
American Federation of Arts, for their traveling show, the American 
Tradition, 1800-1900, on February 12, 1952. 

Oil, Georgia Pines, by George Inness, was lent to The TN'liite House 
on March 18, 1952, for a period not to exceed 4 years. 

Three oils, Indian Summer, by John Francis Murphy ; Spring, by 
Alexander H. Wyant ; and Portrait of John Tyler, by G. P. A. Healy, 
were lent to the Bureau of the Budget on March 18, 1952, for a period 
not to exceed 4 years. 

Five oils, portraits of members of the National Academy of Sci- 
ences: Louis Agassiz, by Walter Ingalls; Joseph Henry, by Walter 
Ingalls ; Spencer F. Baird, by Henry Ulke ; Charles D. Walcott, by 
Hattie Burdette, and Charles G. Abbot, by Samantha L. Huntley, 
were lent to the National Academy of Sciences on April 25, 1952, for 
a period of 4 years. 



44 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 2 

Two oils, portraits of Maj. Gen. Henry Tureman Allen and Maj. 
Gen. Robert Lee Bullard, by Seymour M. Stone, were lent to the De- 
partment of the Army on May 23, 1952, for a period not to exceed 

4 years. 

WITHDRAWALS BY OWNERS 

One pastel painting, The Tennessee Madonna, by James Ross Bry- 
son, lent by Mrs. B. S. Williams in 1931, was withdrawn by the owner 
on November 23, 1951, and delivered to the National Shrine of the 
Innnaculate Conception, Washington, D. C. 

Two panels of stained glass, Dante and Beatrice, designed and 
executed by William Willet, were withdrawn by the artist's daughter, 
Mrs. Thomas H. English, Atlanta, Ga., on March 17, 1952. 

Eighteen pieces of ceramics and one teakwood stand were with- 
drawn by Mrs. H. Foster Bain and shipped to the University of 
Nevada, Reno, Nev., on June 16, 1952. 

One oil painting, portrait of Sr. Benito Juarez, by Tom Lea, lent 
by the State Department in 1949, was returned to the Blair Lee House 
on June 16, 1952. 

SMITHSONIAN LENDING COLLECTION 

Fifty-four paintings in oil, by Edwin Scott (1863-1929) , were added 
to the Alice Pike Barney Memorial Collection presented last year to 
the Smithsonian Institution by Natalie Clifford Barney and Laura 
Dreyfus-Barney, as the nucleus of a loan collection for the embellish- 
ment of Federal buildings, museums, libraries, colleges, and other 
educational institutions in this country. 

One oil painting. Early New Mexican Village (probably Lemitar), 
by an undetermined artist, transferred from the Bureau of American 
Ethnology, was lent to the Museum of New Mexico Art Gallery, Santa 
Fe, through Senator Clinton P. Anderson, Regent of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, February 27, 1952, for an indefinite period. 

Ten paintings by Alice Pike Barney (1860-1931) were lent to the 
Prairie View Agricultural and Mechanical College, Prairie View, 
Tex., on February 27, 1952, for a special exhibition. (Returned 
June 3, 1952.) 

Fourteen paintings (12 by Alice Pike Barney, 1 by E. Ray, and 1 
by A. Kinder) were lent to Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa., on 
June 16, 1952, for a special exhibition. 

One oil painting, Small Port, Puerto Montt, by Arturo Pacheco 
Altamirano, the gift of the people of Chile to the United States 
through Senor Felix Nieto del Rio, the Chilean Ambassador, after 
its initial exhibition of 5 months in the lobby of the Natural History 
Building, was lent to Lehigh University, June 23, 1952, for a period 
of six months. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 45 

Eleven paintings by Alice Pike Barney were lent to the Dayton Art 
Institute, Dayton, Ohio, June 25, 1952, for a special exhibition. 

ALICE PIKE BARNEY MEMORIAL FUND 

An addition of $5,000 to the fund established in 1951 by Miss Natalie 
Clifford Barney and Mrs. Laura Dreyfus-Barney, in memory of their 
mother, for the purpose of encouraging the appreciation and creation 
of art in the United States, was received in January 1952. 

THE HENRY WARD RANGER FUND 

According to a provision in the Ranger bequest that paintings pur- 
chased by the Council of the National Academy of Design from the 
fund provided by the Henry Ward Ranger bequest and assigned to 
American art institutions may be claimed during the 5 -year period 
beginning 10 years after the death of the artist represented, two 
paintings, listed earlier in this report, were recalled and accepted by 
the Smithsonian Art Commission at its meeting December 4, 1951. 

The following paintings, purchased by the Council of the National 
Academy of Design in 1951, have been assigned as follows : 

Title and Artist Assignment 

126. New Lebanon Railroad Station, by Art Museum, New Britain, Conn. 

Louis Bouche, N. A. 

127. The City — No. 2, by Raphael Gleits- Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts, 

mann. Syracuse, N. Y. 

128. Harbor, by Xavier Gonzalez Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, Wash. 

129. Four Houses, by Antonio P. Martini, Randolph-Macon College, Lynch- 

N. A. burg, Va. 

130. Night, by Albert John Pucci Museum of Art, University of 

Kansas, Lawrence, Kans. 

131. Paris, by William A. Smith, A. N. A Florida Southern College, Lakeland, 

Fla. 

132. Farm in Essex, by Gifford Beal, N. A__ Isaac Delgado Museum of Art, New 

Orleans, La. 

133. Nine men, by Joseph Hirsch Dallas Art Association, Dallas Mu- 

seum of Fine Arts, Dallas, Tex. 

134. Rabbit Island, Hawaii, by Millard Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa. 

Sheets, N. A. 

135. Blacksmith Shop, by John Alonzo The Brick Store Museum, Kenne- 

Williams, N. A. bunk, Maine. 

136. Chimney Beams, by Andrew Wyeth, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washing- 

N. A. ton, D. C. 

REFERENCE LIBRARY 

In all, 230 publications (158 volumes and 72 pamphlets) were ac- 
cessioned during the year; 527 parts of periodicals were entered in 
the periodical record, and 17 volumes and 18 pamphlets (serials) 
were entered in the catalog. The total accessions in the National 
Collection of Fine Arts library now number 12,252. 



46 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

On April 23, 1952, Anna Moore Link, librarian since 1942, was 
reassigned to duty in the reference and circulation section of the 
Smitlisonian Library. 

INFORMATION SERVICE 

In addition to the many requests for information received by mail 
and telephone, inquiries made in person at the office numbered 1,856. 
Examination was made of 878 works of art submitted for identifica- 
tion. 

Members of the staff performed numerous services for local and 
national art or civic organizations by giving talks on various art 
subjects and by judging current exhibitions of art and craft work. 

SPECIAL EXHIBITIONS 

Ten special exhibitions were held during the year : 

August SO through Septem'ber 23, 1951. — The Second Annual Exhibition of 
Ceramic Art by the Kiln Club of Washington, D. C, consisting of 145 pieces 
by local ceramic artists and 40 pieces by outstanding artists in this and other 
countries, lent by the artists themselves or by embassies and collectors. Demon- 
strations of pottery-making using the potter's wheel were given several times 
each week by club members. A catalog was privately printed. 

August 30 through September 23, 1951. — The Fourth Annual Exhibition of 
Sculpture by the "Washington Sculptors Group, consisting of 21 pieces of sculi)- 
tnre. Gallery talks on sculptural methods and techniques were periodically 
given by members of the group. 

November 4 through 25, 1951. — The Fourteenth Metropolitan State Art Con- 
test, held under the auspices of the District of Columbia Chapter, American 
Artists Professional League, assisted by the Entre Nous Club, consisting of 396 
paintings, sculpture, prints, ceramics, and metalcraft. A catalog was privately 
printed. 

January 10 through February 27, 1952. — ^An exhibition of Art and Magic of 
Arnhem Land, Australia, consisting of 212 specimens obtained by the National 
Geographic Society, Smithsonian Institution, and Commonwealth of Australia 
Expedition in 1948. 

March 7 through 28, 1952.— The Sixtieth Annual Exhibition of the Society 
of Washington Artists, consisting of 86 paintings and 21 pieces of sculpture. A 
catalog was privately printed. 

April 5 through 27, 1952. — Biennial Art Exhibition of the National League 
of American Pen Women, consisting of 222 paintings, sculpture, prints, ceramics, 
and metalcraft. A catalog was privately printed. 

May Jf through 30, 1952. — The Nineteenth Annual Exhibition of the Miniature 
Painters, Sculptors and Gravers Society of Washington, D. C, consisting of 
209 examples. A catalog was privately printed. 

May 15 through 30, 1952.— The Fifty-fifth Annual Exhibition of the Washing- 
ton Water Color Club, consisting of 156 water colors, etchings, and drawings. 
A catalog was privately printed. 

June 5 through 26, i952.— Exhibition of Finnish Arts and Crafts held under 
the patronage of His Excellency, the Finnish Envoy to Washington, Minister 
Johan Nykoiip, and the Finnish-American Society of Helsinki, consisting of 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 47 

208 paintings, prints, sculpture, ceramics, and rugs. A catalog was privately 
printed. 

June 5 through 26, 1952. — Under the same patronage, and concurrent with 
the above, an exhibition was shown of 10 portrait busts and figure sculpture, 
by Kalervo Kallio, a Washington resident from Finland. A catalog was 
privately printed. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Thomas M. Beggs, Director. 

Dr. a. Wetmore, 

Secretary^ Smithsonian Institution. 



APPENDIX 4 
Report on the Freer Gallery of Art 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the thirty-second annual report on 
the Freer Gallery of Art for the year ended June 30, 1952. 

THE COLLECTIONS 
Additions to the collections by purchase were as follows : 

BRONZE 

51.18. Chinese, Shang dynasty (ca. 1766-1122 B. C). A ceremonial vessel of 

the type ku. Design cast in high and low relief. Inside the base is cast 
a one-character inscription. 0.326x0.191. 

51.19. Chinese, Shang dynasty (ca. 1766-1122 B. C). A ceremonial vessel of the 

type tsun, round with widely flaring lip, bulging belly, and high flaring 
foot. Decoration cast in high and low relief. Two-character inscription 
cast inside base. 0.366 x 0.374. 

52.1. Egyptian, Copto- Arabic, A. D. 8th-9th century. Incense burner in form 

of a square, five-domed structure resting on four feet, with d jour 
decoration and handle. 0.315 x 0.212 x 0.408. 

METALWORK 

51.8. Persian (Tabaristan), Seljuk period, A. D. 11th century. Silver candle- 

stick decorated with repousse and engraved designs and Arabic inscrip- 
tions in kujl script. 0.571 x 0.570. 
51.17. Persian (Khurasan;, Seljuk period, A. D. 12th century, late. Brass candle- 
stick decorated with repousse and engraved designs, also inlaid with 
silver, copper, and pitch. 0.403 x 0.477. (Illustrated.) 

PAINTING 

52.2. Indian, Mughal, about A. D. 1600. A Mongol chieftain with attendants; 

color and gold on paper; Persian verse in nastaHlq, orange paper border 
with gold animal and colored bird drawings; on reverse, four nasta'llq 
panels and border with tinted figures. 0.423 x 0.265 over all. 
52.7. Chinese, Ming dynasty (A. D. 1368-1644). Scroll painting by Wang Fu 
dated in correspondence with 15 June 1410. Bamboos in ink on paper; 
43 seals and 1 inscription on painting, 32 seals and 11 inscriptions on 
mounting. 0.261 x 8.470. 

POTTERY 

51.9. Chinese, Ming dynasty (A. D. 1368-1644). Jar of the type cha-tou; white 
J, porcelain decorated with dragons and floral scrolls in underglaze blue. 

Four-character mark of the Ch6ng-t^ period (1506-1521) on base. 
0.125 X 0.154. 

48 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 49 

51.10. Chinese, Ming dynasty (A. D. 1368-1644). Pair of dishes with plain 

51.11. flaring riras; white porcelain decorated in underglaze blue with "the 
three friends" inside and garden scenes with figures outside. Six- 
character marks of the Ch'eng-hua period (1465-1487) on both bases. 
0.043 X 0.201. 

51.12. Chinese, Ming dynasty (A. D. 1368-1644), second half of the 15th century. 

Jar of the type cha-tou; white porcelain decorated with fruiting and 
flowering branches in underglaze blue. 0.108 x 0.149. (Illustrated.) 

51.13. Chinese, Ming dynasty (A. D, 1368-1644). Dish with foliate sides and 

flaring rim; white porcelain decorated with 1 large dragon inside and 
10 small dragons outside. Six-character mark of the Hsiian-td period 
(1425-1436) on base. 0.048 x 0.213. 

51.14. Chinese, Ming dynasty (A. D. 1368-1644), early 15th century. Bowl 

with plain straight rim; white porcelain decorated in underglaze blue 
with flowers and fruit inside and plain dark petals outside. 0.100 x 
0.210. 

51.15. Chinese, Ming dynasty (A. D. 1368-1644), 15th century. Tankard with 

bulbous body, 16-sided neck and attached handle; white porcelain deco- 
rated with floral scrolls in underglaze blue. 0.140 x 0.128. 

51.16. Chinese, Ming dynasty (A. D. 1368-1644). Stem cup with plain straight 

rim; white porcelain decorated in underglaze blue and overglaze tou-ts'ai 
enamels. Six-character mark of the Ch'^ng-hua period (1465-1487) in 
horizontal line on base. 0.080 x 0.063. 
51,20. Chinese, Sung dynasty (A. D. 960-1279). Lung-ch'uan tripod of the type 
hakamagoshi koro; gray porcelain with even, sea-green, celadon glaze. 
0.104 X 0.140. 

52.3. Chinese, Ming djmasty (A, D. 1368-1644). Dish with plain flaring rim; 

white porcelain decorated with dragons incised in the paste under a solid 
deep blue glaze. Six-character mark of the Chia-ching period (1522- 
1566) in underglaze blue on base. 0.045 x 0.250. 

52.4. Chinese, Ming dynasty (A. D. 1368-1644), second half of the 15th century. 

Bowl with plain, slightly flaring rim; white porcelain decorated with "the 
three friends" inside and landscape with figures outside, aU in underglaze 
blue. 0.095 x 0.204. 

52.5. Chinese, Ming dynasty (A. D. 1368-1644), early 15th century. Vase of 

the type mei-p'ing; white porcelain decorated with floral scroUs in under- 
glaze cobalt blue. 0.248 x 0.152. 

52.6. Chinese, Ming dynasty (A. D. 1368-1644). Bowl with plain rim and 

thick sides; white porcelain decorated with undeiglaze cobalt blue; 
inside plain, outside with six sprays of fruits and flowers; six-character 
mark of the Hsiian-te period (1426-1435) in a single horizontal line 
below the rim. 0.096 x 0.261. 

52.8. Chinese, Sung dynasty (A. D. 960-1279). Cup of southern kuan ware 

with horizontal foliate flange on one side above a small loop handle; 
even, light grayish-brown glaze with deep irregular crackle. 0.045 x 0. 109 
over all. 

52.9. Chinese, Sung dynasty (A. D. 960-1279). Tea bowl of chien type with 

metal rim; coarse, dark reddish-brown stoneware with thick, black glaze 
closely streaked with silvery iridescence, rusty brown near rim. 0.071 x 
0.124. :• 

52.10. Chinese, Han dynasty (207 B. C.-A. D. 220). Large jar with wide belly 

and small mouth of the hard, dark-gray ware called "proto-porcelain"; 
decorated with incised designs under a thin, transparent, olive-green 
glaze, animal-mask handles and horizontal bands in relief: remains of 
an inscription in red on a gesso-like ground over the glaze. 0.329 x 0.382. 



50 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

SCULPTURE 

51.21. Japanese, Suiko period, A. D. 7th century, middle. Gilt bronze figure of a 
Bodhisativa standing on a lotus pedestal. 0.338 x 0.113. (Illustrated.) 

REPAIRS TO THE COLLECTION 

Cleanino: and restoration of 12 American paintings were completed 
by John and Eichard Finlayson of Boston. 

CHANGES IN EXHIBITIONS 

Changes in exhibitions totaled 198 as follows : 

American art : 

Oil paintings 70 

Pastels 30 

Silverpoints 2 

Water colors 28 

Chinese art : 

Paintings 50 

Pottery 2 

Eg^'ptian art : 

Crystal 1 

Persian art : 

Metalwork 14 

Veneto-Islamic art : 

Metalwork 1 

LIBRARY 

Accession of books, pamphlets, periodicals, rubbings, and photo- 
graphs totaled 775 pieces; and additional study materials included 
a stone implement and several hundred pottery shards. Cataloging 
of all kinds, including cards typed and filed, covered 4,688 items, while 
9 bibliographies were prepared in reply to letters and 140 bibliographic 
entries were made on Gallery folder sheets. A total of 567 items were 
bound, labeled, repaired, or mounted. The card catalog was revised 
to facilitate reference to analytical material shelved in the Periodical 
Koom. Work on the indexing of both the English and Japanese 
editions of the Japanese periodical Kokka continued. The establish- 
ment of the technical research laboratory with its specialized library 
and new field of subject headings and bibliography problems has 
increased and broadened the work of the library. 

PUBLICATIONS 

One publication of the Gallery was issued during the year: 

Title page and contents, Occasional Papers, vol. I, 1951. (Smithsonian Publica- 
tion 4049.) 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 51 

Papers by staff members in outside publications were as follows : 

Ettinqhausen, Richabd: Islamic art and archaeology. In "Near Eastern 

Culture and Society," edited by T. Cuyler Young; pp. 17-47, figs. 1-25. 

Princeton University Press, 1951. 
. The "beveled style" in the post-Samarra period. In "Archaeologica 

Orientalia in Memoriam Ernst Herzfeld," edited by George C. Miles ; pp. 

72-83, pis. 9-16. Locust Valley, N. Y., 1952. 
. [Contributor to] Bibliography of periodical literature on the Near and 

Middle East, vols. 19-22. The Middle East Journal, 1951-52. 
. Ars Islamica-Ars Orientalis. Ars Islamica, vols. 15-16, pp. vii-viii, 



1951. 
. In memoriam : Ernst Herzfeld, with supplementary bibliography. Ars 

Islamica, vols. 15-16, pp. 261-267, 1951. 
. In memoriam : Ananda Kentish Coomaraswamy. Ars Islamica, vols. 

15-16, p. 259, 1951. 
— . Islamic metalwork in the British Museum, by D. Barrett (review). 



Ars Islamica, vols. 15-16, pp. 255-257, 1951. 

Gettens, R. J. : Principles in the conservation of mural paintings. In "Essays 
on Archaeological Methods," edited by James B. Griflan ; pp. 59-72. Uni- 
versity of Michigan Press, 1951. 

. The bleaching of stained and discoloured pictures on paper with sodium 

chloride and chlorine dioxide. Museum, vol. 5, No. 2, 1952. 

Pope, John A. : Archaeological research in Indo-China, vol. 2 : The district of 
Chiu-Chen during the Han dynasty. Description and comparative study of 
the finds, by Olov R. T. Janse (review). Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 
vol. 14, Nos. 3, 4, pp. 637-644, Dec. 1951. 

— . The Princessehof Museum in Leeuwarden. Archives of the Chinese Art 

Society of America, vol. 5, pp. 23-37, 8 pis., 1951. 

. A potter's portfolio, a selection of fine pots, by Bernard Leach (review). 



New RepubUc, Apr. 21, 1952. 

REPRODUCTIONS 

During the year the photographic laboratory made 4,547 prints, 
506 glass negatives, and 144 lantern slides. 

BUILDING 

The general condition of the building is good, both inside and 
out, and the maintenance and operation continue satisf actor}^ ; the 
mechanical equipment, though inadequate, continues in working order. 
A temporary painter again helped out with the most urgent work, 
but the lack of a full-time painter is reflected in the gradual deteriora- 
tion of the appearance of the exhibition galleries and other interior 
areas. 

The major project of the cabinet shop was the completion and fur- 
nishing of the technical research laboratory begun last year. Both 
conventional and special equipment w^as installed to provide the 
necessary plumbing, ventilating, light, and power requirements; and 



52 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

closet^ bookcases, specimen cases, instrument cases, microscope table, 
and examining table were built and installed to meet the specifications 
of the associate in technical research. 

Eight new exhibition cases are under construction, and miscella- 
neous odd jobs in care of office and Gallery equipment, crating, etc., 
continue as usual. 

ATTENDANCE 

The Gallery was open to the public from 9 to 4 : 30 every day except 
Christmas Day. The total number of visitors to come in the main 
entrance was 74,940. The highest monthly attendance was in August, 
10,714, and the lowest was in December, 2,507. There were 1,498 
visitors to the office during the year. 

HERZFELD ARCHIVE 

Mrs. Charlotte Bradford, sister of the late Ernst Herzfeld, pre- 
sented to the Herzfeld Archive further manuscripts and notes pre- 
pared by Professor Herzfeld. The Herzfeld material continues to 
be used by experts in Near Eastern archeology throughout the world. 

STAFF ACTIVITIES 

The work of the staff members has been devoted to the study of 
new accessions, of objects contemplated for purchase, and of objects 
submitted for examination, as Avell as to individual research projects 
in the fields represented by the collections of Chinese, Japanese, 
Persian, Arabic, and Indian materials. Reports, oral or written, and 
exclusive of those made by the laboratory which are listed below, 
were made upon 4,385 objects as follows: belonging to private in- 
dividuals, 1,749; belonging to dealers, 485; belonging to other 
museums, 2,151. In all, 654 photographs of objects were examined 
and 504 oriental language inscriptions were translated for outside 
individuals and institutions. By request 10 groups totaling 357 per- 
sons met in the exhibition galleries for docent service by staff mem- 
bers; and 2 groups totaling 24 persons were given docent service in 
the study-storage rooms. 

With the completion of the technical research laboratory and 
the appointment of Rutherford J. Gettens as associate in technical 
research, a new phase of Gallery activity was inaugurated. Its 
purpose is to carry on a continuing investigation of the methods 
and materials used by the artists and craftsmen in the ancient civili- 
zations represented by objects in the Gallery collections. The labora- 
tory was ready for occupancy in March, and Mr. Gettens carried out 
the installation of new equipment and materials, including a large 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 53 

binocular microscope on extendable arm, a chemical microscope, a 
metalographic microscope with vertical illuminator, and a photo- 
micrographic camera. Also included is a wide selection of standard 
chemical apparatus, reagents, and supplies, including ovens, furnaces, 
and equipment for glassworking and electrol3^sis. Reference files, 
technical library, and the collection of specimens of pigments, min- 
erals, polished metals, and microscopic slide mounts were put in 
order. Certain research projects were undertaken while the settle- 
ment was still in progress, and by the end of the fiscal year work had 
begun on the Gallery collections and 40 reports had been made on 
objects submitted for technical examination by outside individuals and 
institutions. 

Dr. Ettinghausen continued his work abroad. Leaving Afghani- 
stan early in July, he spent 3 weeks in Pakistan and India and then 
returned to Iran for 5 weeks, during which time Mrs. Ettinghausen 
completed her photographic work on the Ardebil Chinese porcelains 
for Mr. Pope's publication of the material he studied there in 1950. 
Continuing westward Dr. Ettinghausen spent 6 weeks in Turkey 
and 2 weeks each in Morocco and Spain, with shorter visits to Leba- 
non, Syria, Jordan, Greece, Tunisia, and Algeria on the way. He 
returned to the Gallery in December after an absence of 14 months 
during which he studied most of the important monuments of Islamic 
culture. 

By invitation the following lectures were given outside the Gallery 
by staff members : 

1951 

June 28. Dr. Ettinghausen addressed a group from the press department of 
the Afghan Government and the Kabul Museum, Kabul, Afghanis- 
tan, on "Muslim Art in Western Eyes." Attendance, SO. 

Aug. 22. Dr. Ettinghausen addressed the Iran-America Society in the Cul- 
tural Center, Tehran, on "Persian Miniature Paintings." (Illus- 
trated.) Attendance, 78. 

Sept. 18. Dr. Ettinghausen. as chairman of the first meeting of the section 
"General Islamic Art," addressed the XXIId International Congress 
of Orientalists (Islamic section) at Istanbul, Turkey, on "Early 
Turkish Art from the Court of the Ghaznevids." (Illustrated.) 
Attendance. 35. 

Oct. 4. Mr. Pope addressed members of the Arts Club, Washington, D. C, 

on "Chinese Porcelain." (Illustrated.) Attendance, 75. 

Nov. 19. Mr. Stern addressed the wives of members of the OflBcers' Club, 
Andrews Air Force Base, Washington, D. C, on "A Survey of 
Japanese Art." (Illustrated.) Attendance, 16. 

1952 

Jan. 17. Dr. Ettinghausen addressed members of the Board of Regents at the 
annual dinner, held at the Smithsonian Institution, on "Research in 
Art of the Moslem World." (Illustrated.) Attendance, 25. 



54 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

195t 

Feb. 4. Mr. Gettens addressed members of the Cosmos Club on "Some Obser- 
vations on the Patina and Corrosion Products of Ancient Bronzes." 
(Illustrated.) Attendance, 50. 

Mar. 12. Mr. Pope addressed members of the Questers at luncheon in the 
Arts Club, Washington, D. C, on "Mr. Freer and His Collections." 
Attendance, 25. 

Apr. 15. Dr. Ettinghansen addressed members of the Oriental Institute in 
Chicago on "Islamic Manuscripts and Miniatures." (Illustrated.) 
Attendance, 90. 

Apr. 17. Dr. Ettinghansen addressed members of the Department of Near 
Eastern Studies, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., on 
"Islamic Art; The Book." (Illustrated.) Attendance, 90. 

Apr. 21. Dr. Ettinghansen addressed members of the Department of Near 
Eastern Studies, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., on 
"Islamic Art; The Mosque." (Illustrated.) Attendance, 30. 

May 20. Mr. Stern addressed members of the Takoma Park Women's Club on 
"Survey of Japanese Art." (Illustrated.) Attendance, 25. 

May 21. Dr. Ettinghansen addressed members and guests of the Middle East 
Institute and Oriental Club, Washington. D. C, on "Travels in 
Afghanistan and India." (Illustrated.) Attendance, 120. 

May 20. Dr. Ettinghausen addressed members and guests of the Middle East 
Institute and Oriental Club, Washington, D. C, on "Travels In 
Afghanistan and India." (Illustrated.) Attendance, 90. 

During the year five members of the staff made a total of 14 trips 
outside of Washington on official business. 

Members of the staff held honorary posts and undertook additional 
duties outside the Gallery as follows : 

Mr, Wenley : Member, visiting committee, Dumbarton Oaks Research 

Library and Collection. 

Research professor of oriental art. University of Michigan. 

Trustee, Hermitage Foundation, Norfolk, Va. 

Chairman of the Louise Wallace Hackney scholarship com- 
mittee of the American Oriental Society. 

Member, Smithsonian Art Commission. 

Trustee, Textile Museum of the District of Columbia. 

Member of the Board of United States Civil Service 
Examiners at Washington, D. C, for the Smithsonian 
Institution. 
Mr. Pope : President, Far Eastern Ceramic Group. 

Art editor, Far Eastern Quarterly. 

President, Washington Society, Archaeological Institute of 
America. 

Member, tw^o advisory selection committees for Fulbright 
awards in fine arts and architecture, under the Conference 
Board of Associated Research Councils. 

Served as one of the judges at the Second Annual Exhibi- 
tion of Ceramic Art, Kiln Club of Washington, D. C, held 
at the Smithsonian Institution, National Collection of 
Fine Arts, on August 28, 1951. 



Secietary's Report. 1952.— Appendix 4 



Plate i 






I 



^-^■Jffi^^*'-^ 



51.21 

Recent Addition to the Collection of the Freer Gallery of Ari' 



Secret«r>'t Report, 1952.- Appendix 4 



Plate 2 




51.12 




51.17 

Recent Additions to the Collection of the Freer Gallery of Art 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 



55 



Dr. Ettinghauseu : Research professor of Islamic art, University of Michigan. 

Editor, Ars Islamica. 

Editor, A Selected and Annotated Bibliography of Books and 
Periodicals in Western Languages Dealing with the Near 
and Middle East with Special Emphasis on Medieval and 
Modern Times ; to be published under the auspices of the 
American Council of Learned Societies. 

Member, editorial board, the Art Bulletin. 

Trustee, American research center in Egypt. 

Member, Comitato Internazionale di I'atronato, Museo In- 
ternazionale delle Ceramiche, Faenza, Italy. 

Chairman, Persian and Islamic section Twenty-second Inter- 
national Congress of Orientalists, Istanbul, Sept. 15-22, 
1951. 

Chairman, Islamic Session, Twenty-second International 
Congress of Orientalists, Istanbul, Sept. 18, 1951. 

INIember, editorial advisory committee, Archaeologica Ori- 
entalia in Memoriam Ernst Herzfeld. 

Member, editorial advisory committee. Studies in Art and 
Literature in Honor of Belle DaCosta Greene. 
Mr. Gettens : Associate editor, Studies in Conservation ; new journal be- 

ing pu'Dlished for the International Institute for the Con- 
servation of Museum Objects. 

Abstractor for Chemical Abstracts, American Chemical 
Society. 

Respectfully submitted. 

John A. Pope, Acting Director. 

Dr. A. Wetmore, 
Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 



226984—52 — 



APPENDIX 5 
Report on the Bureau of American Ethnology 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1952, conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congress of April 10, 1928, as amended 
August 22, 1949, which provides for continuing "independently or in 
cooperation anthropological researches among the American Indians 
and the natives of lands under the jurisdiction or protection of the 
United States and the excavation and preservation of archeologic 
remains." 

Information was furnished during the year by members of the 
Bureau staff in reply to numerous inquiries concerning the American 
Indians, past and present, of both continents. The increased number 
of requests from teachers of primary and secondary grades and from 
Scout organizations indicates a rapidly growing interest in the Ameri- 
can Indian. Various specimens sent to the Bureau were identified 
and data on them furnished for their owners. 

SYSTEMATIC RESEARCHES 

Dr. M. W. Stirling, Director of the Bureau, devoted most of his 
time during the fiscal year to administrative affairs and to the prep- 
aration of manuscript on previous field studies in Panama and 
southern Mexico. During the year he prepared three reports for 
publication : "Stone Monuments of the Rio Chiquito, Mexico," "The 
Use of Jade in Aboriginal America," and "An Archeological Survey 
of Southern Veracruz, Tabasco, and Northern Campeche." 

Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., Associate Director of the Bureau 
and Director of the River Basin Surveys, devoted most of his time dur- 
ing tlie year to the management and direction of the River Basin Sur- 
veys. In August he went to Lincoln, Nebr., to inspect the Missouri 
Basin headquarters. From Lincoln, accompanied by Paul L. Cooper, 
field director, he proceeded to the Fort Randall Reservoir area near 
Chamberlain, S. Dak., and visited a number of archeological sites that 
were being excavated by field parties of the River Basin Surveys and 
also the excavations being conducted by the Nebraska State Historical 
Society. He also took part in a conference on local archeological 
problems held at the field camp of the University of Kansas party 
56 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 57 

which was excavating an Indian village site as part of the cooperative 
program of the National Park Service. From the Fort Randall area 
he proceeded to the Oahe Reservoir area north of Pierre, S. Dak., 
where he visited two River Basin Surveys excavating parties. From 
Pierre he proceeded to Cody, Wyo., in company with Dr. Waldo R. 
Wedel, curator of archeology, United States National IMuseum, to in- 
spect an archeological site on Sage Creek where remains of early man 
had been found. The purpose of that trip was to assist in planning 
a series of investigations to be carried on there during the field season 
of 1952 as a cooperative project between the Smithsonian Institution 
and Princeton University. Returning to Pierre, Dr. Roberts held 
a number of conferences with staff members to discuss the plans and 
operations of the salvage program in that area. During the fall and 
winter months he made several trips to the Missouri Basin headquar- 
ters at Lincoln. In March he went to Columbus, Ohio, and delivered 
a lecture on "Early Man in the New World" before the Ohio State 
Historical Society at the State museum. He returned to Columbus in 
May to attend the annual meeting of the Society for American Archae- 
ology and to take part in a symposium dealing with the carbon- 14 
method for dating archeological remains. During the year Dr. 
Roberts completed two manuscripts: "River Basin Surveys: The 
First Five Years of the Inter- Agency Archeological and Paleonto- 
logical Salvage Program" and "The Carbon-14 Method of Age Deter- 
mination," both of which were published in the 1951 Smithsonian 
Annual Report. During the year Dr. Roberts received the Viking 
Fund Medal and Award of the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthro- 
pological Research for his work in American archeology. 

Dr. Henry B. Collins, anthropologist, continued his research on the 
Eskimo and other Arctic activities. Through arrangements with the 
National Museum of Canada, his assistant of 1950, William E. Taylor, 
returned to Cornwallis Island in the Canadian Arctic for further 
excavations. Mr. Taylor's collections, including Thule and Dorset 
culture materials, with notes and photographs, were received by Dr. 
Collins for inclusion in the final report on the Cornwallis Island work. 
Preliminary reports on the first two seasons' excavations on Cornwallis 
Island were published in the annual reports of the National ^luseum of 
Canada for the fiscal years 1949-50 and 1950-51. A general article, 
"The Origin and Antiquity of the Eskimo," summarizing the present 
evidence of archeology, physical anthropology, and linguistics, was 
published in the 1950 Smithsonian Annual Report. A paper on the 
present status of the Dorset culture, with special emphasis on new 
evidence from Greenland and Alaska, which was presented at the 
December 1951 meeting of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, will be included in a volume on American archeology 



58 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 2 

biMn<z published by the Weiiiier-Gren Foundation for Anthropological 
Research. At the meeting of the Society for American Archaeology 
in May 1952 Dr. Collins presented a paper summarizing and evaluating 
the results of radiocarbon dating in the Arctic in the light of the arche- 
ological evidence, and including an interpretation of the ancient 
Denbigli Flint Complex of Alaska, its Old World connections and age, 
and its relationships to Folsom, Yuma, and Eskimo. The paper will 
api)ear in the January issue of American Antiquity. An article on 
the progress of anthropology in 1951 was prepared for the Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica and another on the Eaces of Asia for the Ency- 
clopaedia Hebraica. He also edited Science in Alaska, a volume of 
selected papers presented at the First Alaskan Science Conference held 
in Washington in November 1950 under the auspices of the National 
Academy of Sciences-National Eesearch Council. The volmne was 
published by the Arctic Institute of North America and contains 
papers on Alaskan anthropology, agriculture, botany, geology and 
geography, geophysics, meteorology, public health, and zoology. Dr. 
Collins continued to serve as chairman of the directing committee 
sujjervising preparation of Arctic Bibliography, a comprehensive, an- 
notated, and indexed bibliography of English and foreign-language 
publications in all fields of science relating to the Arctic and sub- Arc- 
tic regions of America, Siberia, and Europe. The bibliography is 
being assembled by the Arctic Institute of North America under con- 
tract with the Office of Naval Research with funds from the Depart- 
ments of the Army and the Navy, and the Defense Research Board 
of Canada. At the end of the fiscal year material for a supplemental 
volume of about 900 pages was completed and ready for the printer. 
Proofreading continues on the initial six volumes of similar size now 
at the Government Printing Office. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year Dr. John P. Harrington was 
in Mexico engaged in studying the Maya language. On his return 
to Washington he completed the preparation of a grammar and dic- 
tionary of the Maya language, with the assistance of a Maya informant, 
Domingo Canton Aguilar, whom he brought to Washington for that 
purpose. He also completed a monograph on the numeration sys- 
tem of the Yalladolid Maya Indians of Yucatan. Another paper 
he completed during tlie fiscal year was on the first vocabulary of 
the Virginia Indians, compiled by William Strachey in 1612. The 
original of this vocabulary is in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, 
England. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year and until after Labor Day, Dr. 
William N. Fenton was visiting professor of anthropology at the 
University of Michigan. During his stay in Ann Arbor he examined 
impoitant historical papers relating to the political history of the 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 59 

Six Nations, or Iroquois, in tlie William L. Clements Library of the 
University of Michigan. Returning to Washington in September, 
Dr. Fenton resumed his research at the Bureau of American Ethnol- 
ogy. He organized and conducted the Seventh Conference on Iro- 
quois Research held at Red House, N. Y., October 5-7. In November 
he participated in a symposium on the training of professional anthro- 
pologists, which was held on the occasion of the annual meetings 
of the American Anthropological Association. Late in November 
Dr. Fenton w^as called to the National Research Council to organize 
a national conference on disaster studies, in which he participated 
on December 6. He resigned his position with the Bureau to accept 
an appointment as executive secretary of the Division of Anthro- 
pology and Psychology at the National Research Council and began 
his duties on January 1, 1952. 

Dr. Philip Drucker reported for duty as general anthropologist 
on January 3, 1952, immediately following his release to inactive duty 
by the United States Navy. On February 15 he proceeded to Mexico 
D. F., for a period of 6 weeks, which he spent studying the large 
offering of artifacts of jade and similar materials excavated in 1941 
at Cerro de las Mesas by the National Geographic-Smithsonian 
Institution archeological project. This collection is housed in the 
National Museum of Mexico. On his return to Washington he pre- 
pared a descriptive monograph on the collection, which was ready 
to be submitted to the Director of the Bureau at the end of 
the fiscal year. In addition. Dr. Drucker continued his studies of 
Meso-American archeology in general. 

RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

(Report prepared by Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr.) 

The River Basin Surveys, organized in the autumn of 1945 as a unit 
of the Bureau of American Ethnology to carry into effect a memo- 
randum of understanding between the Smithsonian Institution and 
the National Park Service, continued its operations throughout the 
year. The memorandum provides for the salvage of archeological 
and paleontological materials that would otherwise be lost as a result 
of numerous projects for flood control and irrigation, hydroelectric 
installations, and navigation improvements in the river basins of the 
United States. As in the past, the investigations were conducted in 
cooperation with the National Park Service and the Bureau of 
Reclamation of the Department of the Interior, the Corps of Engi- 
neers of the Dc^partment of the Army, and a number of nongovern- 
mental local inc:titutions. The operations as a whole are called the 
Inter-Agency Archeological and Paleontological Salvage Program. 



60 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

The work of the River Basin Surveys in the past fiscal year was 
financed by a transfer of $156,403 to the Smithsonian Institution 
by the National Park Service. Of that amount $120,783 was for 
investigations in tlie Missouri Basin and $35,620 was for all other 
ureas where projects were under way. The money comprising those 
funds was derived in pait from the Bureau of Reclamation and in 
part from the National Park Service. Carry-over of previous funds 
provided an additional $77,576 for the Missouri Basin and $350 for 
other areas. The total of all funds available for the year was $234,329. 
Because of a delay in the passage of the appropriation bill it was 
necessary to suspend operations outside the Missouri Basin during 
July and August. 

Activities in the field consisted of reconnaissance or surveys for 
the purpose of locating archeological sites and paleontological 
deposits that will be involved in construction work or are so situated 
that they will be flooded, and in the excavation of sites observed and 
recorded by previous surveys. In contrast to former years there was 
greater emphasis on excavation. This was because of the fact that 
the survey parties were finally catching up with the over-all program 
and there were fewer proposed reservoir areas needing attention. 
Archeological survey parties visited 10 new^ reservoir basins located 
in 6 States and a paleontological party made preliminary investiga- 
tions at 6 reservoirs in 3 States. In addition a number of reservoirs 
where previous preliminary surveys had been made were revisited 
for further checking. At the end of the fiscal year excavations were 
completed or under way in 13 reservoir areas in 11 States. There 
were 22 excavating parties in the field during the course of the year. 
Six of the excavating projects were in areas where there had been no 
previous digging, but the remainder were a continuation of investi- 
gations at reservoir projects where there had been other operations. 
At the close of the fiscal year the total of the reservoir areas where 
archeological surveys had been made or excavations carried on since 
the start of the actual field w^ork in the summer of 1946 was 235 
located in 25 States. The survey parties have located and reported 
3,105 archeological sites, and of that number 578 have been recom- 
mended for excavation or limited testing. Preliminary appraisal 
reports were completed for all the reservoirs surveyed. Some, 
together w^ith others finished near the end of the previous fiscal 
year, were mimeographed for limited distribution to the cooperating 
agencies. During the year 15 such reports were distributed, bring- 
ing to 149 the total issued since the start of the program. The 
discrepancy between the latter figure and the total number of reser- 
voirs is due to the fact that in some cases a series of reservoirs is 
included in a single report covering a subbasin, while in others the 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 61 

completed maniiscrips had not yet been mimeographed at the close 
of the year. Excavations made during the year brought the total 
for reservoir basins where such work has been done to 38, located in 
17 States. Reports on some of that work have been published in 
various scientific journals, and eight such papers are now in press 
as a Bulletin of the Bureau of American Ethnology. The technical 
reports on two other excavation projects have been finished. Paleon- 
tological surveys have been made in 121 reservoir areas, 86 of them 
being those where archeological work has also been done. Eventually 
the other 35 will be visited by archeological parties. The total of all 
reservoir basins surveyed, including those where archeological work 
still remains to be done, is 270. 

As of June 30, 1952, the reservoir projects which had been sui'veyed 
for archeological remains were distributed by States as follows: 
California, 20; Colorado, 24; Georgia, 4; Idaho, 11; Illinois, 2; 
Iowa, 3; Kansas, 7; Kentucky, 1; Louisiana, 1; Minnesota, 1; Mon- 
tana, 15; Nebraska, 28; New Mexico, 1; North Dakota, 13; Ohio, 2; 
Oklahoma, 7 ; Oregon, 27 ; Pennsylvania, 2 ; South Dakota, 9 ; Tennes- 
see, 1; Texas, 19; Virginia, 2; Washington, 11; AVest Virginia, 2; 
Wyoming, 21. Excavations have been made or were being made in 
reservoir areas in: California, 5; Colorado, 1; Georgia, 3; Kansas, 1; 
Montana, 1; Nebraska, 1; New Mexico, 1; North Dakota, 3; Okla- 
homa, 2; Oregon, 2; South Carolina, 1; South Dakota, 3; Texas, 7; 
Virginia, 1; Washington, 3; West Virginia, 1; Wyoming, 2. The 
foregoing figures refer only to the work of the River Basin Surveys or 
that which was done in direct cooperation with local institutions. 
Projects carried on by local institutions alone or in direct cooperation 
with the National Park Service are not included because complete 
information about them was not available. 

Throughout the year the River Basin Surveys continued to receive 
helpful cooperation from the National Park Service, the Bureau of 
Reclamation, the Corps of Engineers, and numerous State and local 
institutions. At a number of projects guides and transportation were 
furnished to staff members in the field. Temporary office and labora- 
tory space was provided at others, and on several occasions labor and 
mechanical equipment were made available by the construction agency. 
Such assistance speeded up the work of the field men and made pos- 
sible greater accomplishment than would otherwise have been the 
case. The National Park Service continued to serve as the liaison 
between the various agencies both in Washington and through its 
several regional offices and provided the Smithsonian Institution with 
necessary information about the locations for proposed dams and 
reservoirs and construction priorities. Furthermore, the National 
Park Service primarily was responsible for obtaining the funds which 



62 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

iiuule the operations possible. The progress of the program as a 
whole was greatly furthered by the enthusiastic help of Park Service 
pei-sonnel. 

General direction and supervision of the w^ork in California, Geor- 
gia, and Virginia were from the main office in Washington. In the 
Columbia Basin the program was directed from a field office and 
lal>oratory at Eugene, Oreg. ; that in the Missouri Basin was under 
the supervision of a field office and laboratory at Lincoln, Nebr. ; and 
that in Texas was under a field office and laboratory at Austin. The 
materials collected by the survey and excavating parties in those three 
areas Avere processed at the respective field laboratories. The collec- 
tions made in Georgia were processed at a laboratory in Athens. 

At the end of the fiscal year a change was made in the plan of 
operations for the Inter-Agency Salvage Program. The work of the 
River Basin Surveys was terminated in the Columbia Basin and Pacific 
coast areas, in the Southwest including Texas, and in Georgia and 
other portions of the Southeast. With the beginning of the new 
fiscal year the direction and supervision of the investigations in those 
areas were to be under the National Park Service with its respective 
regional offices in direct charge. At the close of the year arrange- 
ments were being made to transfer certain of the River Basin Surveys' 
personnel to the National Park Service and for the latter agency to 
take over the various field headquarters. 

W ashington ofice. — Throughout the fiscal year the main headquar- 
ters of the River Basin Surveys continued under the direction of 
Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. Carl F. Miller, Joseph R. Caldwell, and 
Ralph S. Solecki, archeologists, were based on that office. Because of 
lack of funds for w-ork outside the Missouri Basin, however. Miller 
was assigned to the Missouri Basin project during July, August, and 
September, and Caldwell was on leave without pay until Septem- 
ber 10, 1952. Solecki was on leave of absence with an expedition to 
Iraq for most of the year, returning to duty with the surveys in May. 

Mr. Miller's activities in the Missouri Basin are discussed in that 
section of this report. During the fall and winter months at the 
Washington office he completed his technical paper on the excavations 
he supervised at the Allatoona Reservoir in Georgia during an earlier 
fiscal year and processed specimens from sites which he dug at the 
John H. Kerr (formerly called Buggs Island) Reservoir the latter 
pait of the previous fiscal year. In May he returned to the John H. 
Kerr Reservoir area on the Roanoke River in southern Virginia and 
carried on test excavations at a number of sites. That work was 
completed on June 30 and Mr. Miller returned to Washington. The 
gates of the dam were scheduled to be closed early in July, and no 
further investigations are planned for that area. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT ()3 

Early in August Mr. Caldwell received word that an inij)()rlant 
site located a short distance above the Clark Hill Dam on the Savan- 
nah River, Ga., would be inundated well in advance of the date 
originally indicated by the engineers. With funds provided by the 
Smithsonian Institution and the University of Georgia and with the 
help of the resident engineer of the Corps of Engineers, he started 
excavations on the 18th of the month and continued to dig until he 
and his party were driven out by Avater at the end of October. When 
Federal funds became available in September the River Basin Sur- 
veys took over the financing of the project. During January and Feb- 
ruary Mr. Caldwell carried on test excavations at the remains of Fort 
Charlotte at the upper end of the Clark Hill Reservoir in South Caro- 
lina. While at his headquarters at Athens, Mr. Caldwell completed 
five preliminary reports and made considerable progress on the final 
technical report of his part of the excavations at the Allatoona Reser- 
voir. The report on Fort Charlotte Avas mimeogTaphed and ready 
for distribution at the close of the fiscal year. An article on work 
completed a previous fiscal year, "The Booger Bottom Mound: A 
Forsyth Period Site in Hall County, Ga.," was published in Ameri- 
can Antiquity, volume 17, No. 4, April 1952. Mr. Caldwell's employ- 
ment by the River Basin Surveys was terminated as of June 30, 1952, 
by his transfer to the Xational Park Service. 

Dr. Theodore E. White, geologist, divided his time between the 
Washington office and the Missouri Basin. He spent the winter and 
early spring months in Washington cleaning, identifying, and cata- 
loging specimens he had collected during the field season. He also 
identified four lots of mammal bones from archeological excavations 
along the Columbia River, and four lots of bones from the Missouri 
Basin Avhich Avere sent to Washington for that purpose. He com- 
pleted a manuscript, "Preliminary Analysis of the Vertebrate Fossil 
Fauna of the Canyon Ferry Reservoir Area," wdiich was accepted for 
publication in the Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 
and two papers on observations on the butchering techniques of ab- 
original peoples as indicated by the bones from the refuse deposits at 
archeological sites. One paper, "Preliminary Analysis of the Verte- 
brate Fossil Fauna of the Boysen Reservoir Area," was published in 
the Proceedings of the United States National ]\Iuseum, volume 102, 
No. 3296, April 1952. Another, "Observations on the Butchering 
Technique of Some Aboriginal Peoples, I," appeared in American 
Antiquity, A^olume 17, No. 4, April 1952. A third, "Suggestions for 
Facilitating Identification of Animal Bone from Archeological 
Sites," was printed in the Plains Archeological Conference News 
Letter, volume 5, No. 1, May 1952. In May Dr. White left Washing- 
ton to continue his field inA'estijrations in the INIissouri Basin. 



64 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

After his return to active duty Mr. Solecki spent the time until 
June 30 workin<^ on manuscripts and reports. He also made prepara- 
tions for an aerial survey of certain reservoir areas in the Missouri 
Basin and was to proceed to the latter area at the beginning of the 
new fiscal year. 

California. — The only work in California during the fiscal year was 
at the Cachuma Reservoir on the Santa Ynez River in Santa Barbara 
County. From April 28 to June 30 Albert D. Mohr, field assistant, 
supervised excavations at two sites. At one of them a cemetery be- 
longing to what is called the Hunting Culture, the middle stage of a 
three-culture sequence, was dug, and in addition the remains of a 
house belonfrinff to the same horizon w ere uncovered. The latter are 
of particular interest because only two such structures were known 
previously and the one discovered this year has added considerable 
information with respect to construction methods. Opening of graves 
in the cemetery produced skeletal material useful in determining the 
physical characteristics of the people and also good data on burial 
customs. The other site, also mainly a burial ground, belongs to a 
later horizon probably attributable to the Chumash. 

A report by Martin A. Baumhoff, field assistant the previous year, 
on the investigations at the Cachuma Reservoir in late fiscal 1951 w^as 
completed early in June 1952 and the manuscript is now available for 
publication. A summary report on the results of the excavations made 
at the Terminus Reservoir on the Kaweah River in Tulare County W' as 
completed by Franklin Fenenga, archeologist, during the autumn 
months and was published in American Antiquity, volume 17, No. 4, 
April 1952. 

As indicated in the preliminary section of this report, the River 
Basin Surveys w-ill have no further projects in California, as the 
operations there are to be under the direction and supervision of the 
Region Four office of the National Park Service. 

Columbia Basin. — The field office at Eugene, Oreg., w^as closed from 
July 1 to September 10 because of lack of funds, and during that 
period there were no activities in the region. After the office was 
reopened and until the close of the fiscal year the operations for the 
Columbia Basin w^ere, as in the previous year, under the supervision 
of Joel L. Shiner. Office and laboratory work during the fall and 
winter months was mainly concerned with the processing, study, and 
cataloging of materials from the surveys and excavations of the pre- 
vious year. Most of the materials and data were from a habitation 
site in the McNary Reservoir area which had been buried beneath a 
thick mantle of volcanic ash which is estimated to be several thousand 
years old. A summary report on the results of that excavation was 
finished, mimeographed, and distributed to the operating agencies. 
Study of the materials from another site in the McNary area, a village 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 65 

of late prehistoric and early historic times, was also completed and a 
summary report finislied. The latter was mimeogi*a plied and dis- 
tributed in June. 

Late in October Mr. Shiner made a brief investigation at the site 
of The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River and in March made an 
exhaustive survey of the area to be flooded. A brief preliminary re- 
port was issued after the first A'isit, while a second and more detailed 
one was written and mimeographed following the investigations in 
March. The survey showed that there were 10 sites and that 3 were 
worthy of further investigation. One of them is a very large mound 
with stratified deposits some 15 feet in depth. It offers one of the best 
opportunities along the Columbia River for obtaining evidence on the 
sequence of cultural development. This mound, the Wakemap, is in 
danger from two sources, flooding and looting by private collectors. 
The situation with respect to unauthorized digging was so critical that 
plans were being made to start excavations there shortly after the be- 
ginning of the new fiscal year. Two other sites in the area were tested 
later in the spring and one of them proved to be much deeper and 
richer in artifacts than had been anticipated. One test pit, 5 feet 
square, yielded large numbers of flaked-stone tools and "fetish" stones 
and reached a depth of 13 feet. More extended excavations at that 
location are indicated. 

From April 7 to 19 Mr. Shiner carried on test excavations at three 
sites in the McNary area. One of them consisted of an occupation 
level underlying the same layer of volcanic ash as that covering the 
site worked the previous year. The findings corroborated those of 
the previous year and in addition the digging produced several new 
artifact types. At another it appeared that the Indians who had 
occupied it moved in shortly after the fall of the ash. The interval 
represented by the ash layer will help to explain certain differences 
in the artifacts and provides a good basis for establishing relative 
dating in the district. Excavations at the third site proved fruitless. 
The latter part of AjDril Mr. Shiner moved his field party to the Albeni 
Falls Reservoir project on the Pend Oreille River in Idaho for the 
purpose of testing a number of sites in that basin. The occupational 
debris at the various locations was found to be so shallow, however, 
that extensive digging was not warranted. Consequently the party 
spent several days making surface collections. A good series of 
specimens was obtained which will be useful in extending the known 
distribution of types. The data collected indicate that the area 
never had a permanent population. It apparently was a place where 
various groups of Indians spent their summers hunting, fishing, and 
gathering food. 

After returning to the office Mr. Shiner devoted most of his time 
to processing the artifacts collected in the field. Over 1,500 were 



66 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 2 

cleaned and cataloged. A report on the investigations at Albeni 
Falls was completed and one on the test digging at The Dalles was 
practically finished by the end of the year. A collection of specimens 
from a previons year's digging in the McXary Reservoir was packed 
and sliipped to AVashington. 

Four articles pertaining to the results of previous work in the 
Columbia Basin were published in American Antiquity, volume 17, 
No. 4, April 1952. They were : "The 1950 Excavations at Site 45BNC 
McNary Reservoir, Wash.," by Joel L. Shiner; "Material Culture of 
an Upper Coulee Rock-shelter," by John E. Mills and Carolyn 
Osborne; "Archeological Investigations in the Chief Joseph Reser- 
voir," by Douglas Osborne, Robert Crabtree, and Alan Bryan; and 
"Archeological Investigations in O'Sullivan Reservoir, Grant County, 
Wash.," by Richard D. Daugherty. 

Mr. Shiner's afiiliation with the River Basin Surveys terminated on 
June 30 by transfer to the National Park Service. The River Basin 
Surveys office at Eugene was to be kept open, however, by the National 
Park Service, and Mr. Shiner was to be permitted to complete his 
reports on the work he did for the Smithsonian Institution. The 
River Basin Surveys will have no further operations in that area. 

Georgia. — As in the case of the Columbia Basin, field work in the 
Georgia area was handicapped by the delay in obtaining funds and 
the limited amount of money available for the project. During the 
l)eriod from August 18 until the end of October an emergency co- 
operative excavation project, as described in an earlier section of 
this report, was carried on at the Lake Springs site on the Savannah 
River just above the Clark Hill Dam. A large sample of archaic 
material representing a prepottery horizon called the Savannah River 
Focus of the Stalling's Island Culture was obtained there together 
with a small series of contemporary crania showing a population of 
both round- and long-headed individuals. The most important dis- 
covery at the site, however, was a new early culture deep below the 
archaic levels. This new manifestation, which has been designated 
the Old Quartz Culture, showed an artifact assemblage similar to 
those which had been found at a large number of open stations in 
Piedmont Georgia and South Carolina. They have been regarded 
as probably early but could not be so proven until the discovery of 
the stratigraphy at Lake Springs. Unfortunately, the rising waters 
of the Clark Hill Reservoir flooded the excavation pits before as 
much work had been done as was desired, but the results obtained 
are a definite contribution to the archeology of the region. 

In late January and February test excavations were carried on in 
the remains of Fort Charlotte at the upper end of the Clark Hill 
Reservoir in South Carolina. Although located in the latter State 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 67 

the investigations were considered as part of the over-all Georgia 
project. The outline of the fort was traced and a few minor arti- 
facts were recovered. The fort had been a masonry structure erected 
in 1765 as a defense against the Creek and Cherokee Indians who were 
prone to raid the Scotch-Irish, French Huguenot, and German settle- 
ments in the Long Canes region of upper Carolina. Its seizure by 
patriot forces in 1775 was the first oveit act of revolution in the 
southern colonies. American possession of the fort throughout the 
struggle was of considerable importance in holding the loyalties of 
the inhabitants of upper Carolina during the troubled times that 
followed. The recent excavations there give information about the 
physical nature of the fort and its location which was not available 
in documentary records. Underlying the occupation level of the 
fort were Indian materials indicating that the location had also been 
a place where the aborigines held forth. Pottery fragments suggest 
that the Creeks were the tribe involved. There is no question but 
what the Indian material is some years, possibly a good many, older 
than the fort and that the site was deserted at the time it was chosen 
for the location of Fort Charlotte. 

There will be no further work in Georgia under the direction and 
supervisions of the River Basin Surveys, unless there are further 
changes in present plans. As indicated earlier in this report Mr. Cald- 
well's employment terminated on June 30 and he was transferred to 
the National Park Service. He will be permitted, however, to com- 
plete his technical reports on work done under the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution and the manuscripts will be turned over to the River Basin 
Surveys. 

Missouri Basin. — The Missouri Basin project as in previous years 
continued to operate from the field headquarters at Lincoln, Nebr. 
Paul L. Cooper served as director for the progi-am in that area from 
July 1 until February 28 when, in accordance with his request to 
be relieved of administrative duties, Ralph D. Brown took charge. 
Certain changes were made in the organization at that time and Mr. 
Brown was designated as chief of the Missouri Basin project, the old 
title of field director being dropped. Mr. Cooper remained with the 
organization and was assigned to the position of consulting archeolo- 
gist. The trend toward more excavation and less reconnaissance or 
survey work, started the previous year, continued and increased in 
fiscal 1952. This is attributable to the fact that much has been ac- 
complished in the survey portion of the program and there is less 
need for that kind of activity than in previous years. Furthermore, 
the available funds Avere sufficient to provide for extensive excavations. 
During the course of the year the staff was able to devote a greater 
proportion of its time to the study of data and specimens and in the 
preparation of technical reports. 



68 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 2 

During the year archeological surveys were conducted in five new 
reservoir nvexis of which three were in Wyoming, one was in Montana, 
and one in Nebraska-South Dakota. Others where the preliminary 
reconnaissance had not been completed were revisited and a total of 
115 new sites was recorded. In the 1951 field season archeological 
excavations were made in four reservoir areas by seven different units. 
By the end of June 1952 there again were seven archeological excava- 
tion parties working in four reservoir areas, three of them the same 
as in the previous year. Digging at the Keyhole Reservoir in Wyo- 
ming was completed in 1951 and excavations in the Jamestown Reser- 
voir in Xorth Dakota were started in 1952. The other three are 
Fort Randall and Oahe in South Dakota, and Garrision in North 
Dakota. During the year there were paleontological investigations 
in 12 reservoir areas. An archeological survey party was scheduled 
to start for the field in late June but because of an emergency was 
delayed and its departure rescheduled for the first week in July. 

At the Fort Randall Reservoir in South Dakota the 1951 excava- 
tions were at an Indian site and at a historic trading-post site. The 
Indian site is of particular interest because it represents three occupa- 
tional periods. One was a fortified earth-lodge village, one an unfor- 
tified earth-lodge village, and the third an occupational area under- 
lying both of the others. In the fortified area 7 earth lodges, a smaller 
structure, 450 feet of stockade trench, 11 cache pits, and 22 refuse 
areas were exposed and excavated. In the unfortified earth-lodge 
area, one circular earth lodge, one cache pit, and four refuse pits were 
unearthed. In May 1952 excavations were resumed in the unfortified 
area and before the end of June had exposed 2 earth lodges, a refuse 
midden, and 19 exterior pits. The date of the fortified village was 
earlier and the occupational area beneath much older still. Comple- 
tion of the work at that location will provide an excellent sequence 
of materials leading up to the development of fortified villages in 
that district. 

The historic work in the Fort Randall Reservoir in 1951 was at the 
location of the Fort Lookout trading post. The occupational level 
of tlie post was established. Charred beams used in construction, 
sections of vertical posts still in place, and other architectural fea- 
tures were uncovered, along with numerous specimens of trade goods. 
Two Indian occupational levels antedating the establishment of the 
trading post and the nearby fort were found beneath the ruins of 
the post. They are of interest because they produced materials not 
previously known in that part of South Dakota. In May 1952 historic 
investigations were resumed, but they were at the site of the Whetstone 
agency which was established for the Brule and Ogallala bands of 
Sioux from the Fort Laramie region by a treaty drawn in April 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 69 

1868. By 1869 about 1,000 Indians were living there, and by 1870 the 
number had increased to about 2,250. One year later the Indians 
were moved to a new location but the agency buildings continued in 
use through the later 1870*s as a steamboat landing for supplies to be 
conveyed overland to Indian agencies in the interior. Little is known 
about the physical characteristics of the agency or of the Indian 
camp, and digging there should provide interesting data to augment 
the documentary records. By the end of June floor areas had been 
uncovered and cedar post butts in palisade trenches Avere exposed. 
Work at that site is scheduled to continue until it is completed, which 
probably will be at about the end of the current field season. 

In the Oahe Reservoir area during the 1951 field season excavations 
were carried on at two Indian sites. One of them is located just 
below the dam in an area which will ultimately be destroyed by con- 
struction activities, while the other is several miles upstream on the 
west bank just below the point where the Cheyenne River empties into 
the> Missouri. At the first location, known as the Phillips Ranch 
site, 5 earth lodges and 47 cache pits were uncovered, 2 trenches were 
dug across the fortification ditch which surrounded the village, and 
the refuse-bearing overburden was stripped from approximately one- 
eighth of the village area. During the previous year 5 lodges and 
46 cache pits had been dug, so the total for the village was 10 houses 
and 96 cache pits. A large collection of specimens was obtained there, 
the most outstanding probably being a few small fragments of coiled 
basketry. The latter is extremely rare in archeological sites in the 
Plains area. The data obtained from the site provided the basis for 
establishing a previously unrecognized cultural complex for the dis- 
trict. It appears to date from the early part of the eighteenth cen- 
tury and almost certainly represents the protohistoric Arikara 
occupation of the area. Excavations at the Phillips Ranch site have 
been completed. 

The other site, known as the Cheyenne River village, was only par- 
tially dug and will be completed at a later date. The work there 
consisted of the excavation and mapping of four house sites (a fifth 
was nearly finished when heavy storms flooded it so badly that it had 
to be abandoned) and the digging of cache pits. Cultural materials 
from house sites and cache pits were recovered in large quantities 
and preliminary studies indicate that they will provide much new 
information about the arts and industries of their makers. 

The 1952 excavations in the Oahe Reservoir were started at new 
sites. One of them, which had been partly destroyed by construction 
activities, is on the east bank of the Missouri River opposite tlie 
Phillips Ranch site, while the other, which rei)resents a large village, 
is located not far downstream from the Cheyenne River village. 



70 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 2 

Work had not pio^^ressed sufficiently at either location by the end of 
the fiscal year to indicate wliat results might be expected. 

At the Garrison Reservoir in North Dakota two excavating parties 
spent the 1951 field season digging in Indian and historic sites. At 
one Indian village location tlie remains of 8 circular houses, 4 sweat 
lodges, 48 cache pits, and numerous other miscellaneous features were 
uncovered. The artifact yield was good, including uncommon stea- 
tite fragments from bowls made from that material. The bowls 
probably reached the area by trade from tlie west. They may have 
come up the Columbia and down the Missouri as that was a main 
aboriginal trade route. During the 1950 field season at that location 
five houses were excavated and the palisade and moat were traced. 
The combined data for the two seasons give a satisfactory story of the 
village and its material culture. The village was reputedly occupied in 
the late eighteenth century by the Hidatsa Indians and is particularly 
interesting because it presumably was the most northerly of the forti- 
fied earth-lodge communities belonging to the period preceding the 
replacement of aboriginal material culture by trade goods obtained 
from the white man. The other site investigated had also been a 
fortified village. Five houses and parts of a sixth were excavated 
there, and a ceremonial structure 72 feet in diameter, a large village 
gateway, and several other features were found. Cross sections were 
taken of the surrounding defensive ditch. This site, believed to have 
been occupied chiefly by the Arikara Indians, produced relatively 
few artifacts but it throws valuable light on the architecture and 
community plan of the period. In June 1952 an excavating party 
proceeded to the Night Walker's Butte to begin digging the remains 
of one of the few known Indian villages located on top of a butte. 

The historic-sites party spent the period from July 1 to October 7, 
1951, in the excavation of Fort Stevenson, a mile above the Garrison 
Reservoir dam site. The foundations of five of the more important 
military buildings and of several minor ones were traced and a con- 
siderable quantity of materials was obtained. Fort Stevenson was a 
typical Missouri River frontier post and was built to keep the rivei 
open for navigation and to protect the Fort Berthold Indians from the 
Sioux. In addition the post served as one of the main points on the 
overland mail route which ran from St. Paul to Montana. Although 
tlie fort was started in 1867 and was completed late in 1868 and there 
are considerable documentary data about it, useful new information 
pertinent to the actual character of the post and certain Indian rela- 
tionships was obtained during the course of the work. Before stop- 
ping for the season the Fort Stevenson party made tests in a trading- 
post site at the mouth of the White Earth River and obtained some 
trade goods. The historic-sites party returned to the Garrison area 
in June 1952 and began work at a site in the Fort Berthold district. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 71 

From July 1 to September 25, 1951, six key sites were excavated in 
the Keyhole Reservoir on the Belle Fourche River in Crook County, 
Wyo. The excavated sites include one large protohistoric camp with 
pottery remains, three prehistoric camp sites, and two stratified rock 
shelters. The lowest levels in both rock shelters are manifestations 
of a new early-man complex. The data indicate that the aboriginal 
occupation of the Keyhole area may have started about 5,000 years ago. 
Much more recent materials were found in the upper levels and in a 
few cases there were potsherds from vessels of the so-called Woodland 
types. The latter are significant because they extend considerably 
westward the known range of that kind of Indian pottery. The in- 
vestigations at the Keyhole Reservoir have been completed. 

The Jamestown Reservoir on the river of the same name in North 
Dakota was listed for investigation for the first time since the start 
of the program. A survey party was supposed to make a reconnais- 
sance there in the fall of 1951 but because of bad weather was unable 
to do so. As a consequence a combined survey and excavating party 
went there in May 1952. After 3 w^eeks' preliminary examination of 
the area and 18 sites had been located, excavations were started in a 
mound 75 feet in diameter and 10 feet in height located on a bluff, 
and in some house remains on the bottom lands. The mounds in that 
portion of North Dakota show considerable similarity to those in 
northern Minnesota and southern Manitoba and all probably belong 
to the same cultural complex. The actual people involved have not 
been identified as yet, and as little is known about the character of 
the remains the results of the investigations there should add mate- 
rially to knowledge about the Indians. The work there had not 
progressed sufficiently by June 30 to permit a statement about the 
findings. 

During the 1951 field season the paleontological party visited and 
collected in five reservoir areas, two in Montana, one in North Dakota, 
and two in South Dakota. In exploring the Oligocene and Miocene 
deposits in the Canyon Ferry Reservoir basin in Montana the party 
added two genera of small mammals to the known fauna of the Oligo- 
cene and six genera of those of the Miocene. While the sediments of 
the Montana group of the the Upper Cretaceous were being studied 
near the dam for the Oahe Reservoir, S. Dak., the first nearly complete 
skeleton of one of the pygmy species of mosasaur, genus Clidastes^ 
ever obtained was found. The 1952 field season's work started wnth 
a preliminary reconnaissance of the Tuttle Creek and Lovewoll Reser- 
voir basins in the Kansas River drainage, Kansas, and was followed 
by surveys of three reservoir areas in the Platte Drainage. They 
were the Narrows in Colorado, and the Ashton and Trenton in 
Nebraska. Preliminary prospecting was also carried on at the Gavins 

226984—52 6 



72 ANTNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

Point Reservoir on the Missouri River in Nebraska and South Dakota. 
The first of June found the party at the Keyhole Reservoir in Wyo- 
nung explorin^r Cretaceous sediments and the latest report is that 
most of the skeleton of a small plesiosaur was found in the New- 
castle member of the Granerose shale, the first record of vertebrate 
remains from that formation. On June 25 the party moved to the 
Canyon Ferry Reservoir in Montana and was just starting work there 
at the end of the fiscal year. 

During the course of the year seven preliminary appraisal reports 
were completed, mimeographed, and distributed to the cooperating 
agencies; four were completed and are ready for mimeographing; 
and two supplements to previous reports were finished and are await- 
ing mimeographing. Four short articles on specific subjects in Plains 
archeology were prepared by members of the staff and published 
in the Plains Archeological Conference News Letter. Two articles 
were published in American Antiquity and one report appeared in 
the Proceedings of the U. S. National Museum. One technical report 
on excavations in the Oahe area was completed and the first drafts 
of those on two others have been finished. 

The laboratory at Lincoln processed 87,935 specimens from 170 
sites in 18 reservoir areas and 2 sites not in reservoir areas. The 
work in the laboratory also included: reflex copies of record sheets, 
21,444; contact prints made. 8,826; negatives, 2,036; enlargements, 
1,326; specimens drawn for illustrations, 872; color transparencies 
cataloged, 321 ; drawings, tracings, maps made, 112. 

Robert B. Cumming, Jr., archeologist, was in charge of the survey 
and excavation of aboriginal archeological sites at the Fort Randall 
Reservoir in South Dakota from July 1 to November 6 and from 
May 19 to the end of the fiscal year. During the winter months at 
the Lincoln headquarters Mr. Cumming worked on the technical re- 
port on the Oldham site, the scene of most of his activities during the 
1951 summer field season. 

Paul L. Cooper, archeologist, served as field director for the Mis- 
souri Basin activities during the period from July 1 to February 28. 
On the latter date he became consulting archeologist for the project. 
During the spring months Mr. Cooper devoted considerable time to 
discussing the project with Mr. Brown, the new chief, and in con- 
sultation with other members of the staff on archeological procedures 
in the laboratory. He completed a report of progress for the period 
from the beginning of the project in 1946 through April 1952 for 
the Interior Missouri Basin Field Committee. He also worked on 
a more detailed report covering the calendar years 1950 and 1951. He 
met with the Interior Missouri Basin Field Committee at its April 
session where he evaluated the progress made to that date by the 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 73 

River Basin Surveys of the Smithsonian Institution and took part in 
a discussion of the future needs of the salvage program. Mr. Cooper 
served as the chairman of the Ninth Conference for Phiins Arche- 
ology, which met at Lincoln in April. On June he left Lincoln 
for the Oahe Reservoir in South Dakota and at the end of the fiscal 
year was directing a party excavating aboriginal sites along the Mis- 
souri below the mouth of the Cheyenne River. 

Franklin Fenenga, archeologist, was in charge of a reconnaissance 
party from the beginning of the fiscal year until September when he 
returned to the Lincoln office. During the field season his party 
visited 15 proposed reservoir areas. Probably the most interesting 
part of the season was that devoted to a boat trip down the Bighorn 
River Canyon in Wyoming-Montana to examine the area of the pro- 
posed Yellowtail Reservoir. On June 8 he went to the Oahe Reservoir 
and started a series of excavations near the dam site a few miles above 
Pierre, S. Dak. Those activities were well under way by June 30. 
During the months spent at the headquarters in Lincoln Mr. Fenenga 
prepared preliminary appraisal reports for seven reservoir projects. 
He presented two papers before the Ninth Conference for Plains 
Archeology, and served as editor of the News Letter for that confer- 
ence. He was reelected to that office for the year 1952-53. He also read 
a paper before the 62d annual meeting of the Nebraska Academy of 
Sciences. During the 1952 meeting of the Academy he served as acting 
chairman of the anthropological section and was elected its chairman 
for 1953. Mr. Fenenga had two papers published during the year : 
*'The Archeology of Slick Rock Village, Tulare County, California," 
x\merican Antiquity, volume 17, No. 4, April 1922, and "The Wabino, 
a One-time Rival of the Midewiwin," Proceedings of the Nebraska 
Academy of Sciences, 62d Annual Meeting, 1952. 

Donald D. Hartle, archeologist, was in charge of an excavating 
party at the Rock Village site in the Garrison Reservoir area of North 
Dakota from July 1 to August 20. From August 20 to October 27 
he directed the excavations at the Star site in the same reservoir basin. 
The latter part of October, in collaboration with James H. Howard of 
the North Dakota State Historical Society, he recorded 12 Indian 
songs, including several of those known as "Custer' songs. Two 
Arikara Indians, Jonie Fox and Davis Paint, did the singing for 
Hartle and Howard. From November 1 to June 1, Hartle spent his 
time at the Lincoln headquarters studying his materials from the Rock 
Village and preparing a technical report on the results of his investi- 
gations. Further work was contemplated at Rock Village and the 
manuscript could not be finished until that was done. Hartle left 
Lincoln on June 2 with a party to continue his studies at Rock Village 
and by the end of the month had completed the additional excavations. 



74 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

Mr. Haitle presented a paper on the investigations at Rock Village 
before the Ninth Conference for Plains Archeology at Lincoln in 
April. 

Donald J. Lehmer, archeologist, conducted excavations from July 1 
to September 10 at the Phillips Ranch site in the Oahe Reservoir near 
Pierre, S. Dak. Returning to Lincoln from South Dakota Mr. 
Lehmer devoted the period to December 31, when his appointment 
with the River Basin Surveys terminated, to completing a technical 
report on the results of two seasons' work in the Oahe area. This 
report, consisting of 250 manuscript pages, presents in detail the infor- 
mation obtained from the Dodd and Phillips Ranch sites. Publica- 
tion of the report is planned for the next fiscal year. In addition Mr. 
Lehmer completed two shorter articles which were published in 
American Antiquity for April 1952. One was "The Fort Pierre 
Branch, Central South Dakota." The other was on an Oklahoma 
project and is referred to in a later section of this report. 

George Metcalf, field and laboratory assistant, worked with the 
Hartle party in the Garrison Reservoir during July and August. In 
addition to taking an active part in the excavations he made a series 
of surveys in the area and located a number of new sites. In Septem- 
ber he joined the Smith party in the investigations at Fort Stevenson 
and in October participated in a reconnaissance of the region adjacent 
to Fort Stevenson. During the winter months he checked the survey 
records and prepared a supplemental report on the archeological 
resources of the Garrison Reservoir. He assisted in the analysis of 
artifacts from the Rock Village and collaborated in the preparation 
of the section of a technical report dealing with trade materials and 
pottery. In May Mr. Metcalf made a survey of the Big Sandy Reser- 
voir in the Eden Valley, western Wyoming. In June, during an 
emergency, he took charge of one of the parties in the Oahe area for a 
2-week period. On June 30 he was en route to join the party under 
G. H. Smith in the Garrison Reservoir, N. Dak. 

Carl F. Miller, archeologist, transferred to the Missouri Basin for 
the season, spent the latter part of July, August, and until September 
13 digging in a historic site in the Fort Randall Reservoir near Cham- 
berlain, S. Dak. "V^Hien the excavations were completed Mr. Miller 
proceeded to Lincoln where he spent two weeks completing field records 
and other data. From Lincoln he returned to his base at the Washing- 
ton office where he finished his report on the summer's activities. 

John E. Mills joined the staff of the Missouri Basin project as 
an archeologist on April 10, 1952. During April and May he ex- 
amined and studied all the records and artifacts pertaining to historic- 
site research in the Fort Randall Reservoir area and in May made a 
brief survey trip through the reservoir basin with National Park 
Service representatives of Region Two to determine what historic 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 75 

sites merited excavation. In early June he started excavations at 
the site of the Whetstone Agency and was continuing operations 
there at the end of the fiscal year. 

James M. Shipi>ee, field and laboratory assistant, spent the early 
part of July with the AVheeler party at the Keyhole Reservoir in 
Wyoming. The last 2 weeks of the month he joined the Fenenga 
party for the boat trip through the Bighorn Canyon. He returned 
to the Keyhole area in August and remained with the Wheeler party 
until it returned to Lincoln in September. During the fall and win- 
ter months he was occupied with various duties at the field head- 
quarters. In March he spoke before the Great Bend chapter of the 
Missouri Archeological Society and in May read a paper at the annual 
meeting of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences on salvage work at an 
archeological site destroyed by flood prevention work near Kansas 
City, Mo. 

G. H. Smith, archeologist, spent the period from July 1 to October 
1, 1951, excavating in the remains of Fort Stevenson. During that 
period five of the more important building sites were completely or 
largel}^ excavated and there was some digging in a few lesser ones. 
In October Mr. Smith, accompanied by George Metcalf , made a recon- 
naissance in a previously unsurveyed part of the Garrison Reservoir. 
Some test excavations were made at that time at the supposed site of 
the fur-trading post of James Kipp. From October 28 to June 2, Mr. 
Smith was at the Lincoln headquarters where he prepared a report on 
the results of the Fort Stevenson investigations. The first draft was 
completed and referred to the Chief for review. In May Mr. Smith 
accompanied a part}^ of National Park Service historians on a visit 
to historic sites in the Gavins Point, Fort Randall, Oahe, and Garri- 
son Reser^'oirs. In June he returned to the Garrison Reservoir and 
started excavations at the supposed site of the original Fort Berthold, 
and at Fort Atkinson, its successor, which is also known as Fort Ber- 
thold II. By June 30 a section of the site of the latter had been 
opened and considerable information was being obtained concerning 
the post and Indian trade in general. 

Dr. Waldo R. Wedel, curator of the division of archeology, U. S. 
National Museum, was detailed to the River Basin Surveys for the field 
season of 1951. He directed excavations at the Cheyenne River 
village site in the Oahe Reservoir area from June 21 to September 14. 
During the winter months at his regular station in Washington Dr. 
Wedel worked on the materials and data from the site. As there is 
considerable more digging to be done there, however, it will not be 
possible to write the detailed technical report until that has been 
accomplished. 

Richard Page Wheeler, archeologist, spent the period from the start 
of the fiscal year through September 25 excavating at sites in the Key- 



76 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 2 

hole Reservoir area in Crook County, Wyo. Returning to Lincoln, 
Wheeler spent the autumn and winter months analyzing field data 
and preparing a number of reports. He published a paper, "A Note 
on the 'Mc'Kean Lanceolate Point' *' in the Plains Archeological Con- 
ference News Letter, volume 4, No. 4, based on materials from sites 
in the Keyliole Reservoir area. He presented a report on the Keyhole 
investigations before the Ninth Conference for Plains Archeology in 
April. Before starting for the field in June he completed two manu- 
scripts : ''Excavations and Survey in the Boysen Reservoir Area, Cen- 
tral Wyoming" and ''Plains Ceramic Analysis: A check-list of Fea- 
tures and Descriptive Terms.'' From the middle of June until the 
end of the year Mr. Wheeler was in charge of a survey and excavation 
party at tl\e Jamestown Reservoir in North Dakota. 

Dr. Theodore E. White, geologist, spent the period from July 1 
to 8 exploring the Oligocene and Miocene deposits in the CanVon 
Ferry Reservoir area in Montana. From July 10 to 21 he was at the 
Tiber Reservoir in the same State studying the Colorado group of the 
Upper Cretaceous. From July 22 to August 13 he examined the ex- 
posures of the Paleocene Fort LTnion formation on the south side of 
the Missouri River in the Garrison Reservoir in North Dakota. The 
period from August 15 to September 8 was spent exploring the sedi- 
ments of the Montana group of the Upper Cretaceous near the dam in 
the Oahe Reservoir area. He then moved on to the Fort Randall 
Reservoir and spent September 8 to 16 in the area near the dam. That 
completed Dr. ^Yhite's field investigations for the 1951 season. His 
activities during the winter months have already been discussed in con- 
nection with the section on the Washington office. From May 15 to 21, 
1952, he made a preliminary survey of the Tuttle Creek and Lovewell 
Reservoirs in the Kansas River drainage, the Narrows, Trenton and 
Ashton Reservoirs in the Platte drainage, and Gavins Point on the 
Missouri River. From June 2 to 25 Dr. White examined the Cre- 
taceous sediments in the Keyhole Reservoir and then moved on to the 
Canyon Ferry Reservoir for further explorations in that area. 

Oklahoma. — No field work was done in Oklahoma during the last 
fiscal year. The technical report on the excavations of the previous 
year at the Tenkiller Ferry Reservoir on the Illinois River, 15 miles 
south of Tahlequah, was completed by Donald J. Lehmer. The report, 
"The Turkey Bluff Focus of the P\ilton Aspect," was published in 
American Antiquity, volume 17, No. 4, April 1952. No further work 
will be done in Oklahoma by the River Basin Surveys of the Smith- 
sonian Institution since it falls within one of the areas where the 
investigations will be under the direction and supervision of the 
National Park Service after July 1, 1952. 

Texas. — The River Basin Surveys in Texas continued to operate 
from the headquarters at Austin. The office, which was closed tempo- 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 77 

rarily at the beginning of the fiscal year because of lack of funds, was 
reopened on September 10 and functioned until June 30, 1952. Edward 
B. Jelks, acting field director, was in charge during that period. 

Field work in Texas consisted of surveys and excavations. Prelimi- 
nary surveys and appraisals were made at the Colorado City Reservoir 
on the Colorado River in Borden and Scurry Counties, at the Oak 
Creek Reservoir in the same drainage in Coke County, at the Paint 
Creek Reservoir on the Clear Fork of the Brazos River in Haskell 
County, and at the Cooper Reservoir on the South Sulphur River in 
Delta County. A total of 62 sites was found. In the Colorado City, 
Oak Creek, and Paint Creek areas none of them appeared to be of 
sufficient importance to warrant further investigations. At the Cooper 
Reservoir, however, are a number of small mounds and several village 
sites which give surface evidence of occupation by two cultural phases. 
Six of the sites have been recommended for excavation. 

Excavations were carried on in three sites at the Belton Reservoir 
on the Leon River in Coryell County. Some work had been done there 
in a previous year, but the current digging added much new infomia- 
tion. Aj'tif acts from the Caddoan area to the east were found in asso- 
ciation with material from the Central Texas and Edwards Plateau 
cultural aspects. Analysis of the specimens makes it possible, by 
cross-dating, to place the Central Texas aspect in its proper place in 
the relative chronology for Texas. 

In April, May, and June an excavating ])arty investigated three 
sites at the Texarkana Reservoir on the Sulphur River in Cass and 
Bowie Counties. Adequate data were obtained to reconstruct the cul- 
tural history of each. Twelve burials were found at one of the sites, 
nine at another, and five at the third. The skeletal material will pro- 
vide good information on the physical characteristics and possible 
relationships of the people. ^ATien all the data from the excavations 
have been studied and the report is completed a gap in the knowledge 
of that Texas-Arkansas area will be filled. The results should have 
an important bearing on the problem of Caddoan influences in the 
eastern Texas region. 

Four survey reports were completed for mimeogi-aphing during the 
year. A technical report, "Archeological Excavations at the Belton 
Reservoir, Coryell County, Texas.'' by Edward B. Jelks and E. O. 
Miller, has been completed and will be published this fall in the 
Bulletin of the Texas Archeological and Paleontological Society. A 
general paper, "The River Basin Survej's Archeological Salvage Pro- 
gram in Texas,'* was prepared by Edward B. Jelks for the Texas 
Journal of Science. One technical report, completed the previous 
year, ''The Hogge Bridge Site and the AVylie Focus." by Robert L. 
Stephenson, was published in American Antiquity, volume 17, No. 4, 
April 1952. 



78 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 2 

Tlie River Basin Surveys will do no further work in Texas since that 
is one of the projects being taken over by the National Park Service 
on July 1. Arrangements have been made, however, for the com- 
pletion of the reports on the investigations made under the direction 
and supervision of the River Basin Surveys and when the manuscripts 
are received they will be published in accordance with previous plans. 

Virginia. — All the woik in Virginia during the past year was con- 
cerned with the John H. Kerr Reservoir (formerly called Buggs 
Island) on the Roanoke River. During the period from May 19 to 
June 30, 1952, test excavations were made in seven sites. One had been 
partially dug the previous year but a stratigraphic test as a counter- 
clieck against the earlier results was deemed advisable. Data ob- 
tained during the current activities augment those from other seasons, 
filling in certain gaps and clarifying some obscure features. From 
all the information now available a complete sequence of cultural de- 
velopments from a relatively early prepotteiy stage to the late pre- 
Colonial period can be described. No further work will be possible 
at the John H. Kerr Reservoir as the gates of the dam w^ill be closed 
in July and the various sites will soon be flooded. 

Sections of the technical report pertaining to sites that w^ere exca- 
^ ated in previous years have been completed. The writing of the 
report on the current investigations and the summary and conclusions 
should be completed before the end of the present calendar year. 

Future work in Virginia depends upon the program of the Corps of 
Engineers. There are proposed projects for the James and Shenan- 
doah Valleys and when they are authorized investigations will be 
needed in both. Indications are that two small reservoirs in the upper 
James drainage may be started within the next year or two. 

Cooperating institutions. — Various State and local institutions co- 
operated with the River Basin Surveys as in previous years. The Uni- 
A'ersity of Washington and State College of AVashington cooperated 
in excavations in the Columbia Basin. Space for field offices and 
laboratories for units of the surveys was provided by the Universities 
of Nebraska, Oregon, Texas, and Georgia. 

The program developed by the National Park Service whereby 
various scientific agencies carried on salvage operations on the basis 
of agreements between those agencies and the Service was continued 
throughout the year. In some cases the agreements were signed in 
the preceding year and in others the work provided for did not start 
until after the close of the fiscal year. HoAvever, during fiscal 1952 
such agreements were in force with the University of California, Uni- 
versity of Washington, University of Oregon, State College of Wash- 
ington, Montana State University, University of Missouri, University 
of South Dakota, Nebraska State Historical Society, University of 
Kansas, Univei-sity of Wyoming, State Historical Society of North 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 79 

Dakota, University of Nebraska State ^Museum, University of Ne- 
braska Laboratory of Anthropology, University of Oklahoma, Uni- 
versity of Texas, the Museum of New Mexico, and the University of 
Mississippi. 

INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY 
(Report prepared by Geoege M. Foster) 

During the period under review one phase in the history of the In- 
stitute of Social xVnthropology drew to a close, and a new one began. 
The Department of State informed the Smithsonian Institution on 
September 28, 1951, that it would terminate its support on December 
31, 1951. Following the abolition of the Inter-Departmental Com- 
mittee on Scientific and Cultural Cooperation in 1949, under whose 
auspices the Institute of Social Anthropology was established and its 
work carried out, the Institute was placed under the Division of Inter- 
national Exchange of Persons. Since the Institute did not form an 
organic part of this program, the Department of State's decision to 
terminate sujjport was not entirely unforeseen. During the period 
July 1-December 31, 1951, operations were financed with a grant of 
$42,000 from Public Law 402. 

For some time there had been a growing feeling on the part of the 
Institute personnel that the general factual knowledge it had accumu- 
lated since 1944 should be put to some practical use. Therefore, in 
the spring of 1951 anthropological analyses of health centers sponsored 
by the Institute of Inter-American Affairs and the Ministries of 
Health in Mexico, Colombia, Peru, and Brazil were carried out. The 
results of this investigation were made available in mimeographed 
form in July in a paper entitled "A Cross-Cultural Anthropological 
Analysis of a Technical Aid Program,'' which demonstrated to the 
satisfaction of the IIAA that the anthropological knowledge and tech- 
nical methods used by anthropologists would be useful in carrying 
out United States Government technical aid programs in Latin 
America. Accordingly, in a letter dated September 28, 1951, Dr. 
Henry G. Bennett, Administrator, Technical Cooperation Administra- 
tion, asked the Institute of Social Anthropology to integrate its activ- 
ities with those of the IIAA, effective January 1, 1952. In response 
to this request the IIAA made a grant of $45,705 to enable the ISA 
to continue its activities in all four countries, with the understanding 
that Smithsonian anthropologists would be available for program 
analyses of technical aid projects. 

Individual activities of staff membei^ are described in the separate 
country sections. The largest single enterjn-ise consisted of participa- 
tion in a general survey of IIAA public-health programs in Latin 
America. During the spring of 1952 the IIAA decided to utilize 



80 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

anthropologists on a permanent basis and requested that plans be 
made to incorporate ISA personnel directly into that organization. 
This, of course, signaled the termination of ISA activities as such. 
Accordingly, the Department of State was requested to notify the 
Ministei-s of Foreign Relations of the cooperating countries that the 
United States would make use of the escape clauses in its memorandum 
agreements, bringing to a close as of June 30 the agreements that have 
governed ISA operations during past years. Late in June 1952, the 
IIAA asked to extend its grant to the Smithsonian Institution for 
an additional 3 months, to give time for an orderly transfer of person- 
nel. An additional $15,725 was included in the amended grant, which 
was to terminate September 30, 1952. 

Operations during the period July 1, 1951, to June 30, 1952, were 
as follows : 

Washington. — Dr. George M. Foster continued as Director of the In- 
stitute. In September he concluded arrangements with the United 
States Public Health Service and the IIAA whereby certain Institute 
of Social Anthropology staff members, as indicated below, would be 
detailed for varying periods to participate in health-program analyses. 
He spent most of October in El Salvador as a member of the team that 
was initiating this work, and gathered data from a country little 
known anthropologically. During January and February 1952, he 
visited field personnel in Brazil, Perii, Colombia, and Mexico and 
participated in the health survey in Chile. In May he went to Geneva, 
Switzerland, as an adviser on cultural problems to the American 
Delegation to the Fifth Assembly of the World Health Organization. 
In June he undertook the editorship of the full USPHS-IIAA report 
on the Latin-American health survey. 

Early in October the Smithsonian Institution brought Dr. Julio 
Caro Baroja, director of the Muse'o del Pueblo Espafiol in Madrid, 
to Washington for a 3 months' stay. During this period he and Dr. 
Foster were engaged in the preliminary steps of writing a major mono- 
graph on Spanish ethnography, designed to make available Hispanic 
background data to make more intelligible the modern cultures of 
Hispanic America. Dr. Caro's passage was taken care of by the 
Smithsonian Institution; his stay in the United States was made 
possible by a grant from the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthro- 
pological Research. 

Miss Lois Northcott, administrative assistant to the Director since 
1947, resigned to take a position with the Technical Cooperation Ad- 
ministration in Egypt, and her place Avas taken by Mrs. Virginia 
Clark, formerly with the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

Brazil. — Both Dr. Donald Pierson and Dr. Kalervo Oberg contin- 
ued their teaching activities at the Escola de Sociologia e Politica in 
Sao Paulo. Dr. Pierson, as in former years, served as dean of grad- 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 81 

uate work, as co-editor of the quarterly Sociologia, and as editor of 
the book series Biblioteca de Ciencias Sociais. In addition, he was 
occupied in developing long-range plans for an elaborate cultural 
research program in the Si'io Francisco Valley. The sum of 500,000 
cruzeiros was made available to the Escola by the Brazilian Govern- 
ment to carry out this work, and Dr. Pierson was asked to plan and 
direct the research. In the spring of 1952 he made several short trips 
to this area to organize field teams and initiate work. The services of 
Dr. Oberg were requested by the IIAA for analyses of some of their 
health and health-education programs in Chonin, Minas Gerais, dur- 
ing the months of July and August 1951. After concluding formal 
teaching obligations in December he again returned to Chonin, re- 
maining until April 1952. His assignment in Sao Paulo being con- 
cluded. Dr. Oberg was brought to Washington in June, preparatory 
to reassignment to Rio de Janeiro by the IIAA. Dr. Pierson elected 
not to transfer to the IIAA, and on June 30, 1952, his connection 
with the ISA was severed. 

Colombia. — Charles Erasmus continued his collaboration with the 
Colombian Government's Instituto Etnologico in Bogota. In August 
he initiated a community analysis of the mestizo village of Tota in 
the Province of Boyaca. In this work he was aided by Dr. Silva 
Cells, director of the anthropological museum in Sogamosa, and Sr. 
Silvio Yepes, member of the staff of the Instituto Etnologico. In 
November he was detailed to the United States Public Health Service 
and sent to Ecuador Avhere he remained until Januarv 1952. In this 
capacity he participated with the health survey group which at that 
time was working in Ecuador. He was detailed to the IIAA in May 
1952, and sent to Haiti for 6 weeks to participate, with a team of 
experts, in surveying the Artibonite Valley for planning of agricul- 
tural programs. 

Mexico. — Dr. Isabel Kelly taught two courses during the fall semes- 
ter at the Escuela Nacional de Antropologia, in Mexico City. During 
October she made a brief visit to El Salvador to consult with the 
director of the Institute regarding analyses of IIAA projects (see 
Washington), and to make comparative observations in that country. 
In November she initiated additional research on health i)roblems in 
the Federal District, in which work she was assisted bv students from 
the Escuela Nacional. This research continued until March 1J).VJ. 
In May and June of that year Dr. Kelly carried out research in ap- 
plied anthropology in the village of Cadereyta, Queretaro, where the 
IIAA desired information on the sociological effects of a new water- 
supply system. 

Dr. William Wonderly continued teaching activities through Au- 
gust, at which time he asked to be placed on leave status for the re- 
mainder of the year. In December the decision was made not to 



82 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

continue linguistic training as a part of the Institute of Social Anthro- 
pology program, and he left the staff to accept a position at the Uni- 
versity of Oklahoma. 

Both Drs. Kelly and Wonderly represented the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution at the Mexican Government's "Round Table" anthropological 
conference in Jalapa, Veracruz, in August. 

Peru. — Ozzie Simmons continued his teaching activities at the In- 
stituto de Estudios Etnologicos in Lima, and continued to direct 
research in the mestizo village of Lunahuana in the Caiiete Valley 
south of Lima. In December Mr. Simmons was detailed to the United 
States Public Health Service and sent to Chile to participate in the 
evaluation of IIAA health projects in that country. This work con- 
tinued until late January 1952. Mr. Simmons was brought to Wash- 
ington in April 1952, following which he took leave to defend his 
dissertation at Harvard University, where he was awarded his doc- 
torate. He returned to Lima in May to conclude his study in the 
Lunahuana Valley. 

EDITORIAL WORK AND PUBLICATIONS 

There were issued during the year one Annual Report, four Bulle- 
tins, and one Publication of the Institute of Social Anthropology, as 
listed below : 

Sixty-eighth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1950-1951. 

ii + 40 pp. 1952. 
Bulletin 146. Chippewa child life and its cultural background, by Sister M. Inez 

Hilger. xiv+204 pp., 31 pis., 1 fig. 1951. 
Bulletin 147. Journal of an expedition to the Mauvaises Terres and the Upper 
Missouri in 1850, by Thaddeus A. Culbertson. Edited by John Francis 
McDermott. viii-f-164 pp., 2 maps. 1952. 
Bulletin 148. Arapaho child life and its cultural background, by Sister M. Inez 

Hilger. xv+253 pp., 40 pis., 1 fig. J.952. 
Bulletin 149. Symposium on local diversity iu Iroquois culture. Edited by 
William N. Fenton. v + 187 pp., 21 figs. 1951. 

No. 1. Introduction : The concept of locality and the program of Iroquois 

research, by William N. Fenton. 
No. 2. Concepts of land ownership among the Iroquois and their neighbors, 

by George S. Snyder man. 
No. 3. Locality as a basic factor in the development of Iroquois social 

structure, by William N'. Fenton. 
No. 4. Some psychological determinants of culture change in an Iroquoian 

community, by Anthony F. C. Wallace. 
No. 5. The religion of Handsome Lake ; Its origin and development, by 

Merle H. Deardorff. 
No. 6. Local diversity in Iroquois music and dance, by Gertrude P. Kurath. 
No. 7. The Feast of the Dead, or Ghost Dance at Six Nations Reserve, 

Canada, by William N. Fenton and Gertrude P. Kurath. 
No. 8. Iroquois women, then and now, by Martha Champion Randle. 
Institute of Social Anthropology Publication No. 14. The Indian caste of Peru, 
1795-1940. A population study based upon tax records and census reports, 
by George Kubler. vi+71 pp., 2 pis., 1 fig., 20 maps. 1952. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 83 

The following publications were in press at the close of the fiscal 
year: 

Bulletin 145. The Indian tribes of North America, by John R. Swanton. 
Bulletin 150. The modal personality of the Tuscarora Indians, as revealed by 

the Rorschach test, by Anthony F. C. Wallace. 
Bulletin 151. Anthropological Papers, Nos. 33-42. 

No. 33. "Of the Crow Nation," by Edwin Thomi>son Denig. With bio- 
graphical sketch and footnotes by John C. Ewers. 
No. 34. The water lily in Maya art: A complex of alleged Asiatic origin, 

by Robert L. Rands. 
No. 35. The Medicine Bundles of the Florida Seminole and the Green Corn 

Dance, by Louis Capron. 
No. 36. Technique in the music of the American Indian, by Frances 

Densmore. 
No. 37. The belief of the Indians in a connection between song and the 

supernatural, by Frances Densmore. 
No. 38. Aboriginal fish poisons, by Robert F. Heizer. 
No. 39. Aboriginal navigation off the coast of Upper and Baja California, 

by Robert F. Heizer and William C. Massey. 
No. 40. Exploration of the Adena Mound at Natrium, W. Va., by Ralph 

S. Solecki. 
No. 41. The Wind River Shoshone Sun Dance, by D. B. Shimkin. 
No. 42. Current trends in the Wind River Shoshone Sun Dance, by Fred 
Voget. 
Bulletin 152. Index to Schoolcraft's 'Indian Tribes of the United States," com- 
piled by Frances S. Nichols. 
Bulletin 153. La Venta, Tabasco : A study of Olmec ceramics and art, by Philip 

Drucker. 
Bulletin 154. River Basin Surveys Papers: Inter- Agency Archeological Salvage 
Program. Nos. 1-6. 

No. 1. Prehistory and the Missouri Valley Development Program : Sum- 
mary report on the Missouri River Basin Archeological Survey in 10-18, 
by Waldo R. Wedel. 
No. 2. Prehistory and the Missouri A'alley Development Program : Sum- 
mary report on the Missouri River Basin Archeological Survey in 1949, 
by Waldo R. Wedel. 
No. 3. The Woodruff Ossuary, a prehistoric burial site in Phillips County, 

Kans., by Marvin F. Kivett. 
No. 4. The Addicks Dam site : 

I. An arclieological survey of the Addicks Dam basin, Southeast Texas, 
by Joe Ben Wheat. 
II. Indian skeletal remains from the Doering and Kobs sites, Addicks 
Reservoir, Texas, by Marshall T. Newman. 
No. 5. The Hodges site : 

I. T\vo rock shelters near Tucumcari, N. Mex., by Herbert W. Dick. 
II. Geology of the Hodges site. Quay County, N. Mex., by Sheldon Judsou. 
No. 6. The Rembert mounds, Elbert County, Ga., by Joseph R. Caldwell. 
Appendix. List of River Basin Surveys reimrts published in other series. 
Bulletin 155. Settlement patterns in the Viru Valley, Perfi, by Gordon R. Willey. 
Bulletin 1.56. The Iroquois Eagle Dance, an offshoot of the Calumet Dance, by 
William N. Fenton, with an analysis of the Iroquois Eagle Dance and songs, 
by Gertrude Prokosch Kurath. 



84 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

Institute of Social Anthroi>ology Publication No. 13. The Tajin Totonac : Part 1. 
History, subsistence, shelter, and technology, by Isabel Kelly and Angel 
Palerui. 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publication No. 15. Indian tribes of Northern 
Mato G rosso, Brazil, by Kalervo Oberg. With appendix by Marshall New- 
man, entitled "Anthropometry of the Umotina, Nambicuara, and Iranxe, 
with comparative data from other northern Mato Grosso tribes." 

Institute of Social Anthropology Publication No. 16. Penny capitalism : A Guate- 
malan Indian economy, by Sol Tax. 

Publications distributed totaled 21,505, as compared with 22,377 
for the fiscal year 1951. 

ARCHIVES 

Miss Mae W. Tucker, archivist for the Bureau of American Eth- 
nology, retired at the end of February 1952 after nearly 27 years' 
service with the Institution. 

Notable additions to the collections during the fiscal year were the 
diaries of John K. Hillers, who accompanied Maj. J. W. Powell on 
his famous voyage through the Grand Canyon of the Colorado in 
1871 and 1872. Mr. Hillers, who became photographer for the ex- 
pedition, kept a full daily record of the expedition, which constitutes 
a most valuable addition to our knowledge of this famous adventure. 
The diaries were presented to the Bureau by Mrs. J. K. Hillers of 
Washington, D. C, daughter-in-law of the author. 

Mrs. Alice Xorvell Hunt, of Washington, D. C, presented to the 
Bureau an interesting collection of early photographs of western In- 
dians collected by her father while an army officer in the West and 
Southwest. Comprising photographs made by Baker and Johnston ; 
Addison of Fort Sill, Oklahoma Territory; O. S. Goff, Dickinson, 
X. Dak.; A. S. Goff, Fort Custer, Mont.; Chr. Barthelmess, Fort 
Keogh, Mont; and Chase Thorne,_El Paso, the 46 prints, including 
a number of famous Indians, are all new to the collections. 

William H. Myer, of W^ashington, D. C, and Mrs. Annie Lee 
Myer Turner, of Carthage, Tenn., presented a book containing 75 
drawings by Indians of the Southern Plains. The book was acquired 
about the year 1880 by Capt. David N. McDonald and was later 
purchased by W. E. Myer, father of the donors. 

Mrs. J. C. Cardell, of Lenoir, N. C, presented a Mohawk dictionary 
of 973 pages with French equivalents. It is in the dialect spoken at 
Lake of Two Mountains, Caughnawaga and St. Regis in the Province 
of Quebec, Canada, and is the work of Rev. J. A. Cuoc. It was 
obtained later by Jeremiah Curtain, father of the donor. 

Henry Lookout, of Pawhuska, Okla., son of the late Fred Lookout, 
last principal chief of the Osage Nation, sent to the Bureau on 
indefinite loan a group of papers relating to the history of the Osage 
Nation, passed down from father to son for generations. Among the 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 85 

documents is a treaty of peace between the United States, the Osage 
Nations, and the Missouri and Arkansas Tribes, signed in 1815 at 
Portage des Sioux in what is now St. Charles County, Mo. In addi- 
tion to the many Indian seals and signatures, it carries the signatures 
of AVilliam Clark, of I^wis and Clark expedition fame, Ninian 
Edwards, governor of the Territory of Illinois, and Auguste Chouteau, 
principal figure of the early fur trade in the West. Also included in 
the material from Mr. Lookout is a Jefferson medal of 1801, made 
for presentation to Indian leaders. These are extremely rare since 
they were usually buried with their recipient. 

COLLECTIONS 
A.CC. No. 
191398. Mold and finished face mask of Frances Densmore, made by Micka in 1912. 

192829. Cornhusk ceremonial mask, Grand River Iroquois, Ontario, Canada, 

probably collected by J. N. B. Hewitt. 
(Through Dr. M. W. Stirling) Ceremonial and historical wampum of 
the Iroquois, collected in 1928-29 by J. N. B. Hewitt at the Six Nations 
Reserve, Ontario, Canada. 

192830. Shell necklace used in the Tutelo adoption ceremony, collected in 1941 

by W. N. Fenton. 

FROM RIVER BASIN SURVEYS 

193461. Skeletal and archeological material from sites Mc44 and Ha6, Bug^s 

Island Reservoir, Roanoke River, near Clarksville, Va. 
191031. (Through Dr. F. H. H. Roberts, Jr.) Vertebrate material collected by 

Dr. Theodore E. White, May 1951, Garza-Little Elm Dam, north fork 

of Trinity River, Denton County, Tex. 
191587. Fossil vertebrate material from Oligocene and Miocene deposits in the 

Canyon Ferry Reservoir area, Montana, collected by Dr. Theodore E. 

White, July 1951. 

192062. 5 fossil vertebrates including mammals, reptiles, and fishes, from 

Garrison Reservoir area near Williston, N. Dak., collected by Dr. 
Theodore E. White, August 1951. 

192063. 1 mosasaur skeleton and shark teeth from Pierre formation, Upper 

Cretaceous, in Oahe Reservoir area near Pierre, S. Dak., collected by 

Dr. Theodore E. White, August 1951. 
193460. Tympanic bullae of kangaroo rat from near Pierre, S. Dak. 
193835. (Through R. L. Stephenson) Approximately 120 land moUusks from 

Texas. 

Respectfully submitted. 

M. W. Stirling, Director. 
Dr. A. Wettviore, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 



APPENDIX 6 
Report on the International Exchange Service 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the activities 
of the International Exchange Service for the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1952 : 

The Smithsonian Institution is the official United States agency 
for the exchange with other nations of governmental, scientific, and 
literary publications. The International Exchange Service, initiated 
by the Smithsonian Institution in the early years of its existence for 
the interchange of scientific publications between learned societies and 
individuals in the United States and those of foreign countries, serves 
as a means of developing and executing in part the broad and compre- 
hensive objective, "the diffusion of knowledge." It was later desig- 
nated by the United States Government as the agency for the 
transmission of official documents to selected depositories throughout 
the world, and it continues to execute the exchanges pursuant to con- 
ventions, treaties, and other international agreements. 

Although the number of packages received for transmission during 
the year decreased by 9,386 to the yearly total of 1,001,614, the total 
weight of the packages increased by 36,854 pounds to the total of 
825,627 pounds. The average weight of the individual package 
increased to 13.18 ounces as compared to the 12.46-ounce average for 
the fiscal year of 1951. The publications received from both the 
foreign and domestic sources for shipment are classified as shown in 
the following table : 



Classification 


Packages 


Weight 


United States parliamentary documents sent abroad... 


Number 
591, 147 


Number 
10, 987 


Pounds 
267, 339 


Pounds 


Publications received in return for parliamentary docu- 
ments. 


19, 678 


United States departmental documents sent abroad 


173, 747 


182, 096 
245, 773 




Publications received in return for departmental docu- 
ments 


5,201 
49,312 


20, 591 


Miscellaneous scientific and literary publications sent 
abroad 


171,220 


Miscellaneous scientific and literary publications re- 
ceived from abroad for distribution in the United 
States 


90, 150 










Total 


936,114 


65, 500 


695, 208 


130,419 


fJrand total . 


1 
1,001 fil 4 


825 6^7 













86 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 87 

The packages of publications are forwarded to the exchange bu- 
reaus of foreign countries by freight, or where shipment by such 
means is impractical, to the addressees by direct mail. The number 
of boxes shipped to the foreign exchange bureaus was 3,058, or 174 
more than for the previous year. Of these boxes 8G7 were for de- 
positories of full sets of United States Government documents, these 
publications being furnished in exchange for the official publications 
of foreign governments which are received for deposit in the Library 
of Congress. The number of packages forwarded by mail and by 
means other than freight was 205.666. 

Transportation rates continue to increase and are primarily re- 
sponsible for the 148.014 pounds of publications that remained un- 
shipped at the end of the fiscal year. 

No shipments are being made to either China or Rumania. Pub- 
lications intended for addresses in Formosa and formerly sent through 
the Chinese Exchange Bureau at Nanking are now forwarded by 
direct mail. 

FOREIGN DEPOSITORIES OF GOVERNMENTAL DOCUMENTS 

The number of sets of United States official publications received 
by the Exchange Service for transmission abroad in return for the 
official publications sent by foreign governments for deposit in the 
Library of Congress is now 104 (62 full and 42 partial sets), listed 
below. Changes that occurred during the year are shown in the 
footnotes. 

DEPOSITORIES OF FULL SETS 

Argentina : Division Biblioteca, Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores y Cultx>, 

Buenos Aires. 
AusTRAijA : Commonwealth Parliament and National Library, Canberra. 

New South Wales : Public Library of New South Wales, Sydney. 

Queensland : Parliamentary Library, Brisbane. 

South Australia : Public Library of South Australia, Adelaide. 

Tasmania: Parliamentary Library, Hobart. 

Victoria : Public Library of Victoria, Melbourne. 

Western Australia: Public Library of Western Australia, Perth. 
Austria : Administrative Library, Federal Chancellery, Vienna. 
Belgium: Bibliotheque Royale, Bruxelles. 
BicAZiL : Biblioteca Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. 
Bulgaria : Bulgarian Bibliographical Institute, Sofia. 
BujiMA : Government Book Depot, Rangoon. 
Canada : Library of Parliament, Ottawa, 

Manitoba : Provincial Library, Winnipeg. 

Ontario : Legislative Library, Toronto. 

Quebec : Library of the Legislature of the Province of Quebec. 
Ceylon : Department of Information, Government of Ceylon. Colombo. 
Chile : Biblioteca Nacional, Santiago. 

226984—52 7 



88 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

China : Ministry of Education, National Library, Nanking, China.* 
Peipinq: National Library of Peiping.* 

Colombia : Biblioteca Nacional, Bogotd. 

Costa Rica : Biblioteca Nacional, San Jos6. 

Cuba : Miuisterio de Estado, Canje Internacional, Habana. 

Czechoslovakia : Bibliotheque de I'Assembl^e Nationale, Prague. 

Denmark : Inst i tut Danois des Iilchanges Internationaux, Copenhagen. 

Egypt : Bureau des Publications, Minist^re des Finances, Cairo. 

B^inland: Parliamentary Library, Helsinki. 

France : Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. 

Germany : Offentliche Wissenschaf tliche Biblothek, Berlin. 
Parliamentary Library, Bonn. 

Great Britain : 

England : British Museum, London. 

London: London School of Economics and Political Science. (Depository 
of the London County Council.) 

Hungary : Library of Parliament, Budapest. 
India : National Library, Calcutta. 

Central Secretariat Library, New Delhi. 
Indonesia : Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Djakarta. 
Ireland : National Library of Ireland, Dublin. 
Israel : Government Archives and Library, Hakirya. 
Italy: Ministerio della Publica Istruzione, Rome. 
Japan : National Diet Library, Tokyo.' 
Mexico : Secretaria de Relaciones Exteriores, Departamento de Informacion para 

el Extranjero, Mexico, D. F. 
Netherlands : Royal Library, The Hague. 
New Zealand : General Assembly Library, Wellington. 
Norway: Utenriksdepartmentets Bibliothek, Oslo. 
Pakistan : Central Secretariat Library, Karachi.' 

Peru: Seccion de Propaganda y Publicaciones, Ministerio de Relaciones Ex- 
teriores, Lima. 
Philippines : Bureau of Public Libraries, Department of Education, Manila. 
Poland : Bibliotheque Nacionale, Warsaw. 
I'ortugal : Biblioteca Nacional, Lisbon. 
SPAIN: Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid. 
Sweden : Kungliga Biblioteket, Stockholm. 
Switzerland : Bibliotheque Centrale F^d^rale, Berne. 
Turkey: Department of Printing and Engraving, Ministry of Education, 

Istanbul. 
Union of South Africa : State Library, Pretoria, Transvaal. 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: AU-Union Lenin Library, Moscow 115. 
United Nations : Library of the United Nations, Geneva, Switzerland. 
Uruguay : Oficina de Canje Internacional de Publicaciones, Montevideo. 
Venezuela : Biblioteca Nacional, Caracas. 
I^ugoslavia: Bibliograf ski Institut, Belgrade.' 

depositories of partial sets 

Afghanistan : Library of the Afghan Academy, Kabul. 
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan : Gordon Memorial College, Khartoum. 

^ Shipment suspended. 
^ Receives two sets. 
2 Added during year. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 89 

Bolivia: Biblioteca del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores y Culto, La Paz. 
Brazil : 

MiNAS Gerais : Directoria Geral de Estatistica em Minas, Belo Horizonte. 
British Guiana: Government Secretary's Office, Georgetown, Demerara. 
Canada : 

Alberta : Provincial Library, Edmonton. 

British Columbia: Provincial Library, Victoria. 

New Brunswick : Legislative Library, Fredericton. 

Newfoundland: Department of Provincial Affairs, St. John's. 

Nova Scotia : Provincial Secretary of Nova Scotia, Halifax. 

Saskatchewan : Legislative Library, Regina. 
Dominican Republic: Biblioteca de la Universidad de Santo Domingo, Ciudad 

Trujillo. 
Ecuador: Biblioteca Nacional, Quito. 
El Salvador : 

Biblioteca Nacional, San Salvador. 

Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, San Salvador. 
Greece: National Library, Athens. 
Guatemala : Biblioteca Nacional, Guatemala. 
Haiti : Bibliotheque Nationale, Port-au-Prince. 
Honduras : 

Biblioteca y Archive Nacionales, Tegucigalpa. 

Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Tegucigalpa. 
Iceland : National Library, Reykjavik. 
India : 

Bihar and Orissa : Revenue Department, Patna. 

Bombay : Undersecretary to the Government of Bombay, General Department, 
Bombay. 

United Pro\^nces of Agra and Oudh : 
University of Allahabad, Allahabad. 
Secretariat Library, Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow.* 

West Bengal: Library, West Bengal Legislative Secretariat, Assembly 
House, Calcutta. 
Iran : Imperial Ministry of Education, Tehran. 
Iraq : Public Library, Baghdad. 
Jamaica : Colonial Secretary, Kingston. 

University College of the West Indies, St. Andrew. 
Lebanon : American University of Beirut, Beirut.' 
Liberia : Department of State, Monrovia. 

Malaya : Federal Secretariat, Federation of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. 
Malta : Minister for the Treasury, Valleta. 
Nicaragua : Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Managua. 
Pakistan : Chief Secretary to the Government of Punjab, Lahore. 
Panama : Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Panamil. 

Paraguay : Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Secci6n Biblioteca, Asunci6n. 
Scotland : National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh. 
Siam : National Library, Bangkok. 

Singapore : Chief Secretary, Government Offices, Singapore. 
Vatican City : Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Vatican City, Italy. 



* Changed from Civil Secretariat, Council House, Lucknow. 



90 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

INTERPARLIAMENTARY EXCHANGE OF THE OFFICIAL JOURNAL 

There are now being sent abroad 87 copies of the Federal Register 
and 94 copies of the Congressional Record. This is an increase over 
the preceding year of 2 copies of the Federal Register and 2 of the Con- 
gressional Record. The countries to which these journals are being 
forwarded are given in the following list : 

depositories of congressional record and federal register 

Argentina : 

Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional, Buenos Aires. 

Biblioteca del Poder Judicial, Mendoza.° 

Boletin Oflcial de la Republica Argentina, Ministerio de Justica e Instruc- 
ci6n Piiblica, Buenos Aires. 

Ciimara de Diputados Oficina de Informacion Parlamentaria, Buenos Aires. 
Australia : 

Commonwealth Parliament and National Library, Canberra. 

New South Wales : Library of Parliament of New South Wales, Sydney. 

Queensland : Chief Secretary's Oflace, Brisbane. 

Victoria : Public Library of Victoria, Melbourne.^ " 

Western Australia: Library of Parliament of Western Australia. 
Brazil: 

Biblioteca da Camera dos Deputados, Rio de Janeiro. 

Secretaria de Presidencia, Rio de Janeiro.^ 

Amazonas : Archive, Biblioteca e Imprensa Publica, Manaos. 

Bahia : Governador do Estado da Bahia, Sao Salvador. 

Espirito Santo: Presidencia do Estado do Espirito Santo, Victoria. 

Rio Grande do Sul: Imprensa Oficial do Estado, Porto Alegre. 

Sebglpe : Biblioteca Publica do Estado de Sergipe, Aracaju. 

Sao Paulo : Imprensa Oficial do Estada, Sao Paulo. 
British Honduras : Colonial Secretary, Belize. 
Canada : 

Library of Parliament, Ottawa. 

Clerk of the Senate, Houses of Parliament, Ottawa. 
Ceylon : Ceylon Ministry of Defense and External Affairs, Colombo.* 
Ctjba: 

Biblioteca del Capitolio, Habana. 

Biblioteca Publica Panamericana, Habana." 

House of Representatives, Habana. 
Czechoslovakia: Library of the Czechoslovak National Assembly, Prague.' 
Egypt : Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Egyptian Government, Cairo.' 
El Salvador : Library, National Assembly, San Salvador. 
France : 

Bibliotheque Assembl^e Nationale, Paris. 

Biblioth^ue Conseil de la R6publique, Paris. 

Library, Organization for European Economic Cooperation, Paris.' 

Publiques de I'lnstitut de Droit Compart, University de Paris, Paris." 

Research Department, Council of Europe, Strasbourg.' 

Service de la Documentation fitrangere, Assembl^e Nationale, Paris.' 



• Federal Register only. 

• Congressional Record only. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 91 

Geemany : 

Amerika-Institut der Universitat, Miinchen, Miinchen.' ' 

Archiv, Deutscher Bundesrat, Bonn. 

Bibliotek der Instituts fiir Weltwirtschaft an der Universitat Kiel, Kiel-Wik. 

Der Bayrische Landtag, Munich." ' 

Deutscher Bundesrat, Bonn.' 

Deutscher Bundestag, Bonn.® 
Gbeat Britain : 

Department of Printed Books, British Museum, London.' ' 

House of Commons Library, London." 

Printed Library of the Foreign Office, London. 

Royal Institut of International Affairs, London." 
Greece: Biblioth^que, Chambre des D^put^s Hellenique, Athens. 
Guatemala: Biblioteca de la Asamblea Legislativa, Guatemala. 
Haiti : Biblioth^que Nationale, Port-au-Prince. 
Honduras : Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional, Tegucigalpa. 
India : 

Civil Secretariat Library, Lucknow, United Provinces." 

Indian Council of World Affairs, New Delhi." 

Legislative Assembly Library, Lucknow, United Provinces. 

Legislative Department, Simla. 

Parliament Library, New Delhi." 
Ireland: Dail Eireann, Dublin. 
Italy: 

Biblioteca Camera dei Deputati, Rome. 

Biblioteca del Senato della Republica, Rome. 

European Office, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 
Rome.'' 

International Institute for the Unification of Private Law, Rome.' 
Japan : Library cf. the National Diet, Tokyo. 
Korea: Secretary General, National Assembly, Pusan.' 
MEXICO : 

Direccion General Informacion, Secretaria de Gobernaci6n, Mexico, D, F. 

Biblioteca Benjamin Frankin, Mexico, D. F. 

Aguascalientes : Gobernador del Estado de Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes. 

Baja California: Gobernador del Distrito Norte, Mexicali. 

Campeche : Gobernador del Estado de Campeche, Campeche. 

Chiapas : Gobernador del Estado de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez. 

Chihuahua: Gobernador del Estado de Chihuahua, Chihuahua. 

CoAHUiLA : Periodico Oficial del Estado de Coahuila, Palacio de Goblerno, 
Saltillo. 

CoLiMA : Gobernador del Estado de Colima, Coliraa. 

DuRANGO : Gobernador Constitucional del Estado de Durango, Durango. 

Guanajuato; Secretaria General de Gobierno del Estado, Guanajuato. 

Guerrero: Gobernador del Estado de Guerrero, Chilpancingo. 

Jalisco : Biblioteca del Estado, Guadalajara. 

M:6xico: Gaceta del Gobierno, Toluca. 

MichoacAn : Secretaria General de Gobierno del Estado de MichoacAn, 
Morelia. 

MoRELos : Palacio de Gobierno, Cuernavaca. 



' Three copies. 



92 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

MEXICO — Continued 

Nayauit : Gobernador de Nayarit, Tepic. 

NuEvo Le6n : Biblioteca del Estado, Monterrey. 

Oaxaca : Peri6dico Oficial, Palacia de Gobierno, Oaxaca. 

PuEBLA : Secretaria General de Gobierno, Puebla. 

QuEKfiTAKO : Secretaria General de Gobierno, Secci6n de Archivo, Quer^taro. 

San Luis Porosf : Congreso del Estado, San Luis Potosf. 

SiNALOA : Gobernador del Estado de Sinaloa, Culiacdn. 

SoNORA : Gobernador del Estado de Sonora, Hermosillo. 

Tabasco : Secretaria de Gobierno, Sessi6n 3a, Ramo de Prensa, Villahermosa. 

Tamaulipas : Secretaria General de Gobierno, Victoria. 

Tlaxcala : Secretaria de Gobierno del Estado, Tlaxcala. 

Veeacbuz: Gobernador del Estado de Veracruz, Departamento de Gober- 
naci6n y Justicia, Jalapa. 

YucatAn : Gobernador del Estado de Yucatan, M^rida. 
Netherlands: Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague." 
New Zealand: General Assembly Library, Wellington. 
Norway : Library of the Norwegian Parliament, Oslo. 
Pakistan : Punjab Legislative Assembly Department, Lahore. 
PERtJ : C3.mara de Diputados, Lima. 
Poland : Ministry of Justice, Warsaw." 
Portugal : Secretaria de Assembla National, Lisbon.' 
Portuguese Timor: Repartigao Central de Administragao Civil, Dili.'" 
Switzerland: Biblioth^que, Bureau International du Travail, Geneva." 

International Labor Office, Geneva." * 

Library, United Nations, Geneva. 
Union of South Africa : 

Cape of Good Hope : Library of Parliament, Cape Town. 

Transvaal: State Library, Pretoria. 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics : Fundamental'niia Biblioteka, Ob- 

shchestvennykh Nauk, Moscow." 
Uruguay : Diario Oficial, Calle Florida 1178, Montevideo. 
Venezuela: Biblioteca del Congreso, Caracas. 

FOREIGN EXCHANGE SERVICES 

Exchange publications for addresses in the countries listed below 
are forwarded by freight to the exchange services of those countries. 
Exchange publications for addresses in other countries are forwarded 
directly to the addresses by mail. 

list of exchange services 

Austria : Austrian National Library, Vienna. 

Belgium : Service des liJcbanges Internationaux, Biblioth^ue Royale de Belgique, 

Bruxelles. 
China : Bureau of International Exchange, National Central Library, Nanking.* 
Czechoslovakia : Bureau of International Exchanges, National and University 

Library, Prague. 
Denmark : Institut Danois des ^changes Internationaux, Biblioth^que Royale, 

Copenhagen K. 

' Two copies. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 93 

Egypt : Government Press, Publications Oflace, Bulaq, Cairo. 

Finland: Delegation of the Scientific Societies, Snellmaninkatu 9-11, Helsinki. 

Fbance: Service des Echanges Internationaux, BibliothSque Nationale, 58 Rue 
de Richelieu, Paris. 

Gebmany : Notgemeinschaf t der Deutschen Wissenschaft, Bad Godesberg. 

Great Britain and Ireland : Wheldon & Wesley, 83/84 Berwick Street, London, 
W. V 

Hungary: Hungarian Libraries Board, Ferenciektere 5, Budapest, IV. 

India : Superintendent of Government Printing and Stationary, Bombay. 

Indonesia: Department of Cultural Affairs and Education, Djakarta. 

Israel : Jewish National and University Library, Jerusalem. 

Italy: Utficio degli Scambi Internazionali, Ministero della Publica Istruzione, 
Rome. 

Japan : Division of International Affairs, National Diet Library, Tokyo. 

Netherlands: International Exchange Bureau of the Netherlands, Royal Li- 
brary, The Hague. 

New South Wales : Public Library of New South Wales, Sydney. 

New Zealand : General Assembly Library, Wellington. 

Norway : Service Norv^gien des ^changes Internationaux, Bibliothfeque de I'TJni- 
versit6 Royale, Oslo. 

Philippines : Bureau of Public Libraries, Department of Education, Manila. 

Poland : Service Polonais des Echanges Internationaux, Bibliothfeque Nationale, 
Warsaw. 

Portugal : Secgao de Trocas Internacionais, Biblioteca Nacional, Lisbon. 

Queensland: Bureau of Exchanges of International Publications, Chief Secre- 
tary's Office, Brisbane. 

Rumania: MinistSre de la Propagande Nationale, Service des ^changes Inter- 
nationaux, Bucharest.* 

South Australia: South Australian Government Exchanges Bureau, Govern- 
ment Printing and Stationary Office, Adelaide. 

Spain : Junta de Intercambio y Adquisicion de Libros y Revistas para Bibliote- 
cas Publicas, Ministerio de Educaci6n Nacional, Avenida Calvo Sotelo 20, 
Madrid. 

Sweden : Kungliga Biblioteket, Stockholm. 

Switzerland: Service Suisse des ^changes Internationaux, Biblioth^que Cen- 

trale F^d^rale, Palais F^d^ral, Berne. 
Tasmania : Secretary of the Premier, Hobart. 
Turkey: Ministry of Education, Department of Printing and Engraving, 

Istanbul. 
Union of South Africa : Government Printing and Stationary Office, Cape Town, 

Cape of Good Hope. 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics : Bureau of Book Exchange, State Lenin 

Library, Moscow 19. 
Victoria : Public Library of Victoria, Melbourne. 
Western Australia: Public Library of Western Australia, Perth. 
Yugoslavia: Bibliografski Institut FNRJ, Belgrade. 

Respectfully submitted. 

D. G. Williams, Chief. 
Dr. A. Wetmore, 

Secretary^ Smithsonian Institution. 



» Between the United States and England only. 



APPENDIX 7 
Report on the National Zoological Park 

Sir: Transmitted herewith is a report on the operations of the 
National Zoological Park for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1952. 

There were 590 accessions, comprising 1,575 individual animals, 
added to the collection during the year by gifts, deposits, purchases, 
exchanges, births, and hatchings. Among these were many rare 
specimens never before shown in this Zoo. The addition of new kinds 
of animals enhances the value of the collection, which is maintained 
not only for exhibition, but for research and education, thus fostering 
the Smithsonian's established purpose of "the increase and diffusion 
of knowledge." Valuable opportunities for research are afforded 
students of biology, particularly vertebrate zoology, as well as artists, 
photographers, and writers. Only methods of study that do not 
endanger the welfare of animals or the safety of the public are 
permitted. 

Services of the staff included answering in person or by phone, mail, 
or telegraph questions regarding animals and their care and trans- 
portation; furnishing to other zoos and other agencies, public and 
private, information regarding structures for housing animals; co- 
operating with other agencies of Federal, State, and municipal gov- 
ernments in research work ; and preparing articles for publication. 

The stone restaurant building, which was constructed in the Park 
in 1940, is leased at $23,052 a year. This money is deposited in the 
general fund of the United States Treasury. The concessionaire 
serves meals and light refreshments and sells souvenirs. 

THE EXHIBITS 

Animals for exliibition are acquired by gift, deposit, purchase, ex- 
changes, births, and hatchings, and are removed by death, exchange, 
or return of those on deposit. Although depositors are at liberty to 
remove their specimens, many leave them permanently. 

As in any colony of living things, there is a steady turn-over, and 
so the exhibits are constantly changing. Thus, the inventory list 
of specimens in the collection on June 30 of each year does not show 
all the kinds of animals that were exhibited during the year; some- 
times creatures of outstanding interest at the time they were shown 
are no longer in the collection at the time the list is prepared. 
94 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 95 

The United States National Museum is given first choice of all speci- 
mens that die in the Zoo. If they are not desired for the Museum they 
are then made available to other scientific institutions or scientific 
workers. Thus the value of the specimen continues long after it is 
dead. 

Professional workers of the National Institutes of Health frequently 
perform autopsies on animals for the information thus obtained that 
might be of use in the study of human diseases. They frequently 
diagnose causes of death and make suggestions for treatment of liv- 
ing animals. In particular, acknowledgment is made for the excellent 
assistance and advice given the Zoo from time to time by Dr. W. H. 
Eyestone, of the National Cancer Institute, and by Miss Frances 
Dobell, biologist in his laboratory. 

Zoos are constantly striving to take such good care of their animals 
that they may live out their maximum life spans. Therefore when 
fair success is attained and animals live in captivity longer than they 
usually do or when they appear to have established outstanding 
longevity records, it is gratifying. In the National Zoological Park 
there are many animals that continue to thrive after relatively long 
periods in captivity. A few of these are listed below. Though none 
of them has established a maximum longevity record, all are note- 
worthy. 

Mammals. — A ringtail, or cacomistle {Bassariscns astutus) ^ receiYed 
as an adult in August 1941, is still living and in good condition. 

A digger pine pocket gopher {Thomomys bottae mewa) , received on 
May 19, 1949, lived until June 27, 1952. Pocket gophers do not ordi- 
narily survive so long in captivity. 

Birds. — The bird that has been in the Zoo collection the longest is 
a Siberian crane {Grus leucogeranus)^ which was received in 1906. 
It is still thriving and appears to be in good condition. 

A white-naped crane {Grus leucauchen) received in 1916 appears to 
be in good health. 

A wood ibis {Mycteria americana) and a lesser adjutant stork 
{Leptoptilus javanicus) were both received in 1928 and are still doing 
well. 

East African crowned cranes {Balearica regulomm gibhericeps) 
received in 1926 and West African cranes {Balearica pavonina) re- 
ceived in 1931 are thriving. 

A single- wattled cassowary {Casuariiis unappendicidatiis) ^ re- 
ceived in 1928, and other cassowaries received in 1937 are still alive. 

Small birds that are still thriving are white-cheeked bulbuls 
{Pycnonotus leucogenys) and mourning finches {Phrygilus fruticeti) 
received in 1940. 

Reptiles. — The oldest animal in the collection is a Galapagos turtle 
{Testudo vicina)^ which was collected by the Lord Rotschild Expedi- 



96 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

tion to the Galapagos Islands in 1898, the first scientific exploration 
of these islands. Since its receipt it has continued to thrive and grow. 

An African water turtle {PeJomedusa galeata)^ obtained in 1926 
by the Smithsonian-Chrysler Expedition, is still alive. 
* Other reptiles with interesting records are : A soft-shelled turtle 
(Ami/daferox) received in 1930; flat-headed turtles {Platemys platy- 
cephala) received in 1931 ; two African crocodiles {Crocodylus niloti- 
cns) received in 1929; four spectacled caimans {Caiman sclerops) re- 
ceived in 1931 ; and a pike-head snake {Oxyhelis acuminatus) received 
in 1943. 

Among the amphibians are Argentine horned frogs {Geratophrys 
amata) received in 1939 and giant toads {Bufo marinus) received 
in 1931. 

Two South American lungfishes {Lepidosiren paradoxa) , received 
in 1931, are still living. 

The most serious loss of the year from both a financial and senti- 
mental standpoint was the death on June 30, 1952, of the African 
elephant "Jumbina," which had been with the Zoo since August 8, 
1913. She was never the docile soul that endears some elephants to 
children, but she was admired by many for her active, alert ways as 
well as for her stature and renaarkable form. When she was obtained 
from the Government Zoological Garden at Giza, Egypt, she was 4 
feet 3 inches high at the shoulders and weighted 875 pounds. An 
arthritic-like condition apparently caused her decline. 

ACCESSIONS 

By extensive correspondence with persons in foreign lands the Zoo is 
frequently able to acquire by gift, exchange, or purchase highly de- 
sirable animals that are not ordinarily available through animal deal- 
ers or other zoos. 

OUTSTANDING ACQUISITIONS 

Tlie Commonwealth of Australia presented to the President of the 
United States an albino kangaroo and a pair of the beautiful Crown 
Prince Rudolph's blue birds-of -paradise. These are quartered in the 
Zoo and are most interesting additions to the exhibits, as the kangaroo 
is believed to be the only one of its kind in captivity, and the birds 
are the first of this species that this Zoo has ever had. 

In exchange with E. J. L. Hallstrom, president of the Taronga 
Zoological Park Trust, Sydney, N. S. W., an outstanding collection 
was received from Australia, consisting of gang-gang cockatoos ( Cal- 
locephalon fimbriatum) , Barraband's parakeets {Polytelis swainsoni) , 
Leadbeater's cockatoos {Kakatoe leadheateri) ^ bare-eyed cockatoos 
{Kakatoe sanguineus) ^ sulphur-crested cockatoos {Kakatoe galerita)^ 
emus {Dromiceius novaehollandiae) ^ bowerbirds {Ptilonorhynchus 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 97 

violaceics), Cape Barren geese (Oereopsis novaehollandiae) ^ black 
swans {Chenopis atrata)^ 4 long-eared opossums {Trichosurus vul- 
pecula) , 6 phalangers (Petaurus norfolcensis) , 2 wallabies ( Wallabia 
agilis)^ 2 wallaroos {M acropus robustus), 2 red kangaroos (Macropus 
rufus), 2 great gray kangaroos {Macropus giganteus)^ 7 White's 
skinks {Egernia whitii), 4 carpet pythons (Python variegatus) ^ 5 
black snakes {Pseudechis porphyriacus) ^ 2 green snakes {Dendrophis 
punctulatus) ^ and 4 tiger snakes {Spilotes pullatus pidlatus). Other 
specimens are still to be received in this exchange. In return, a young 
giraffe, 2 pygmy hippopotamuses, and 1 grizzly bear were sent to 
Australia. 

The United States Fish and Wildlife Service, through various mem- 
bers of its staff, has continued to assist us in maintaining an interesting 
collection during the year. A pair of MacQueen's bustards ( Chlamy- 
dotis undulata macqueenii) was presented through Gardner Bump and 
the State of New Mexico. The first Ross's snow geese {Chen rossi) 
received since 1915 were sent by Vernon Ekedahl, superintendent of 
the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge, from Willows, Calif. He 
also sent other North American waterfowl, which are enumerated in 
the list of donors. Other members of the Fish and Wildlife Service 
who assisted are given in the list of donors. 

W. W. Dornin, of Phoenix, Ariz., continued from time to time 
to send choice specimens of reptiles of the southwestern United States. 

Valuable specimens were received during the year from J. D. Hand- 
man, Nyasaland Railways Ltd., Monkey Bay, Nyasaland, Africa. As 
this is a region little known zoologically, all the specimens are unusual 
in collections. Outstanding among these was a file snake {Simoce- 
phdlus capensis) . 

The United States Army Medical Unit in Malaya, under the leader- 
ship of Lt. Col. Robert Traub, again brought to the United States 
particularly interesting animals that were made available to the Na- 
tional Zoological Park after they had served their purpose with the 
Medical Unit. Although the collection was not large, all the specimens 
were very desirable. They included 2 baby orangutans {Pongo 
pygmaeus dbelii) ; 2 young small-toothed civets {Arctogcdidia trivir- 
gata)\, 4 ferret-badgers {Helictis everetti) \ 2 tree shrews {Tupcu 
montana haluensis) ; 4 choice specimens of the big black rat of Mount 
Kinabalu, North Borneo {Rattus infraluteus) ; 1 Bornean porcupine 
(Trichys lipura) ; and 1 remarkable tiny spineless hedgehog {Hylo- 
mys sidllus dorsalis) . On the long trip from Asia the animals were 
cared for by Charles Wharton, a zoologist who had been with the 
Medical Unit. 

The Johns Hopkins Research Center deposited in the Zoo a group 
of young chimpanzees that have proved to be a fascinating exhibit. 



98 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

The National Institutes of Health, through Samuel Poiley, pre- 
sented 13 minks and a number of ferrets. 

Fourteen species of animals were received that had not previously 
been exhibited in the National Zoological Park, and some of them 
probably had not previously been on exhibition in the United States. 
Among these were : 

Scientific name Common name 

Arctogalidia trivirgata stiffmatica Small-toothed civet. 

llclictis everetti Ferret-badger. 

Tupai montana haluensis Kinabalu tree shrew. 

Rattus infralutmis Kinabalu giant rat. 

Hylomys suillua dorsalis Spineless hedgehog. 

Trich]is lipura Bornean porcupine. 

Prcshijtis phai/7'ci Phayre's langur. 

Macropus giganteus Albino great gray kangaroo. 

Avas luzonica Philippine mallard. 

Crax alberti Blue-cered curassow. 

Cephalopterus omatus Umbrellabird. 

Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii MacQueen's bustard. 

Denisonia superha Australian copperhead. 

Simocephalus capensis File snake. 

Other acquisitions of outstanding interest, although not the first of 
their kind to be exhibited by the Zoo, were : 

Pongo pygmaeus abelii Orangutan. 

Pan troglodytes Chimpanzee. 

HyJohates lar White-handed gibbon. 

Speothos venaticus Bush dog. 

Diceros hicornis Black rhinoceros. 

Rupicola sanguinolenta Scarlet cock-of-the-rock. 

Rupicola rupicola Orange cock-of-the-rock. 

Polytelis swainsoni Barraband's parakeet. 

Callocephalon fimbriatum Gang-gang cockatoo. 

Psittacus erithacus African gray parrot. 

Kakatoe leadbeateri Leadbeater's cockatoo. 

Chen rossi Ross's goose. 

Bucorvus ahyssinictis Abyssinian ground hornbill. 

Pharomachus mocine Quetzal. 

Kakatoe haematuropygia Red-vented cockatoo. 

Kakatoe sanguineus Bare-eyed cockatoo. 

Dromiceus novaehollandiae Emu. 

Ptilonorhynchus violaceus Bowerbird. 

Paradisomis rudophi , Prince Rudolph's bird-of-paradise. 

Kinixys erosa Hinged-back turtle. 

Bomby.T mori Silkworm. 

DEPOSITORS AND DONORS AND THEIR GIFTS 

(Deposits are marked *) 

Adelle's Pet Shop, Washington, D. C, skunk. 

Airline Pilots' Association, Washington, D. C, boa constrictor. 

Amos, .Tohn T., Mount Rainier, Md., red fox. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 99 

Animal Rescue League, Washington, D. O., squirrel monkey. 

Armbruster, David, Washington, D. C, 9 opossums. 

Australia, Commonwealth of, through E. J. L. Hallstrom, Sydney, N. S. W., albino 

kangaroo, 2 Crown Prince Rudolph's birds-of-paradise. 
Ayer, Bruce, Washington, D. C, Pekin duck. 
Ayers, Mrs. John K., Mount Rainier, Md., red-vented cockatoo. 
Bacckel, Mrs. R. M., Washington, D. C, goldfish. 
Backauer, Ben, Washington, D. C, rabbit. 
Baker, Bobby, Washington, D. C, Pekin duck. 
Baldwin, J. W., Alexandria, Va., gray fox. 
Banister, Mrs. A. B., Chevy Chase, Md., salamander. 
Barker, B., and Norris, R., Washington, D. C, gray fox. 
Barnes, Roger L., Washington, D. C, Pekin duck. 
Bartlett, Mrs. Hallie B., Washington, D. 0., robin. 
Bartley, Master Sgt. Frank E., Washington, D. C, skunk. 
Barton, A. J., Pittsburgh, Pa., 6 timber rattlesnakes. 
Bell, Curtis, Bethesda, Md., 3 Pekin ducks. 
Bergen, W. P., Washington, D. C, Pekin duck. 
Bernard, Mrs. H. J., Washington, D. C, canary. 
Biessel, Barbara and Betty, Bethesda, Md., 2 Pekin ducks. 
Birding, Mrs. Anne, Washington, D. G., red fox. 
Blades, Lt. Charles P., Anacostia, D. C, red fox. 
Blake, Lois, Bethesda, Md., 2 Pekin ducks. 
Boges, E. H., Greenbelt, Md., 14 white rats. 
Bole, Joe, 3d, Washington, D. C, 37 box turtles. 
Bolton, E. S., Arlington, Va., horned lizard. 

Bonsall, Mrs. E. S., College Park, Md., 2 Toulouse geese, Pekin duck. 
Boy Scouts, Troop 443, Silver Spring, Md., pilot black snake. 
Bradford, Mrs. D., Arlington, Va., 2 Pekin ducks. 
Branitsch, Jay, Arlington, Va., 4 box turtles. 
Breed, R. E., Washington, D. C, skunk. 
Bretemi>s, F., Washington, D. C, Pekin duck. 
Brinckerhoff, Wm. W., Washington, D. C, yellow-headed parrot* 
Brown, J. F., Hyattsville, Md., red-tailed hawk. 
Brown, Russell L., Greenbelt, Md., crow. 
Bruder, W. A., Washington, D. C, 2 Pekin ducks. 
Bruer, John L,, Alexandria, Va., keeled green snake. 

Buck, Warren, Camden, N. J., pygmy hippopotamus,* 2 cotton-headed marmosets.* 
Burke, Donald, Washington, D. C, snapping turtle. 
Carson, James, Arlington, Va., 2 opossums. 
Carter, Mrs. Hill, Washington, D. C, opossum. 
Castle, Guy, Oxon Hill, Md., 5 Muscovy ducks. 
Chambers, Bob, Rockville, Md., skunk. 
Clutter, C. J., Washington, D. C, muskrat. 
Cofl3eld, Mrs. E., Washington, D. C, canary. 
Collins, Elizabeth, Washington, D. C, screech owl. 
Conlin, Thomas Byrd, Arlington, Va., 9 box turtles. 
Cook, Elliott R., Arlington, Va., Pekin duck. 
Cool, Mrs. Leon, Washington, D. C, cedar waxwing. 
Cox, Ray E., Washington, D. C, rabbit. 
Crn, Mrs. Re, Alexandria, Va., 2 Pekin ducks. 
Curran, Sandra M., Washington, D. C, 2 newts. 
Cutchfield, John, Washington, D. C, 3 hamsters. 



100 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

Dade, Bob, Washington, D. C, long-eared owl. 

Dahlgren, Danny, Alexandria, Va., horned lizard. 

Davis, F. A., Silver Spring, Md., pilot snake. 

Dawson, D. M., Mount Rainier, Md., scarlet tanager. 

Dean, Carol A., Washington, D. C, Pekin duck. 

Deck, J. C. Uiverdale, Md., ring-necked snake. 

Derrett, R. E., Washington, D. C, Pekin duck. 

DeWind, Mrs. A. W., Chevy Chase, Md., 2 Pekin ducks. 

Dickey, Mrs. Alexander M., Washington, D. C, 2 English sparrows. 

District of Columbia Dog Pound, Washington, D. C, raccoon, barred owl. 

Doruiu, W. W., Phoenix, Ariz., 2 western bull snakes, garter snake, 6 glossy 
snakes, Sonoran burrowing snake, 7 diamondback rattlesnakes, prairie 
rattlesnake, 6 chuckwallas, 6 sidewinders, 2 desert rattlers, Boyle's king 
snake, leaf-nosed snake, desert snake, striped racer, red racer, lizard. 

Douglas, J. E., Rockville, Md., worm snake, ring-necked snake. 

Douse, Richard, Washington, D. C, pilot black snake. 

Doutrich, Edward A., Silver Spring, Md., American crow. 

Downs, Larry E., Arlington, Va., rhesus monkey.* 

Dulerio, Mrs. L. F., Fort Foote, Md., robin. 

Durham, Mrs. A. W., Bethesda, Md., canary. 

Durham, B. G., Chevy Chase, Md., 3 horned lizards. 

Dyke, Mrs. Grace, Washington, D. C, 2 grass parakeets. 

Edwards, Mrs. Kenneth, Washington, D. C, 3 grass parakeets. 

Edwards, Marion, Washington, D. C, skunk. 

Egbert, Gordon R., Chevy Chase, Md., 6 Pekin ducks. 

Espenshade, G. H., Arlington, Va., 3 Pekin ducks. 

Fahey, A. J., Takoma Park, Md., opossum. 

Feeney, Mrs. J., Chevy Chase, Md., Pekin duck. 

Fine, J. L., Hyattsville, Md., hamster. 

Fleischman, Mrs. Morgan, Washington, D. C, 2 Pekin ducks. 

Floyd, Mrs. R., Silver Spring, Md., Pekin duck. 

Ford, Ber telle E., Rockville, Md., ring-necked snake. 

Fothergill, James, and Stockwell, Frank, Newburyport, Mass., snapping turtle. 

Fox, Dr. C. Corbin, Harrisonburg, Va., black vulture. 

Freeman, D. H., Washington, D. C, rabbit. 

French, M. B., Chevy Chase, Md., Pekin duck. 

Gault, Mrs. S. W., Alexandria, Va., Pekin duck. 

Gaver, Gordon, Thurmont, Md., 9 rhesus monkeys,* Javan macaque.* 2 pilot 
black snakes,* king cobra,* 5 Siamese cobras,* Indian python,* regal python,* 
2 common boas,* green tree boa,* rainbow boa,* ball python,* mangrove 
snake,* African python,* 2 Gila monsters,* 3 black tegus,* 5 Florida dia- 
mondback rattlers,* Texas diamondback rattler,* 2 hog-nosed snakes.* 

Geib, Mrs. Pat, Brentwood, Md., rabbit. 

Gilligan, George W., Washington, D. C, black snake. 

Grady, Dallis M., West River, Md., bald eagle. 

Grassgreen, Mrs. Anne, Mount Rainier, Md., rabbit. 

Graus, Mrs. Matilda, Alexandria, Va., Pekin duck. 

Graybill, Catherine, Cabin John, Md., 2 water snakes. 

Grow, Mrs. Norman A., College Park, Md., gray fox. 

Guim, J. M., Alexandria, Va., black-widow spider. 

Guinn, Terry, Arlington, Va., king snake. 

Hagenbeck, Lorenz, Hamburg, Germany, 15 yellow-bellied toads. 

Hahl, Miss L., Falls Church, Va., grass parakeet. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 101 

Hall, Billy and Bobby, Arlington, Va., alligator. 

Hallard, Mrs., Arlington, Va., Pekin duck. 

Hamb right, D., Washington, D. C, 2 Pekin ducks. 

Hanson, Chuck, Crestview, Fla., diamondback rattlesnake, 2 pygmy rattlesnakes. 

Harris, Carter E., Jr., Takoma Park, Md., red fox.* 

Hartman, John, Silver Spring, Md., 2 Pekin ducks. 

Hawkins, Sandra L., Lewisdale, Md., 2 Pekin ducks. 

Haymes, W. E., Lynchburg, Va., rhesus monkey.* 

Heeland, Mrs. W., Washington, D. C, bobwhite quail. 

Henderson, Bill, Vienna, Va., snapping turtle. 

Hensley, Mrs. Betty, Richmond, Va., lion cub. 

Herndon, J. L., family, Washington, D. C, sooty mangabey. 

Hingorani, D. K., Washington, D. C, Pekin duck. 

Hoke, John, Washington, D. C, flying squirrel. 

Holland, Charles W., Arlington, Va., 3 white rats. 

Hough, Milton, W^ashington, D. C, sparrow hawk. 

Ploward, Jeff, Washington, D. C, Pekin duck. 

Howe, Chester, Herndon, Va., 2 raccoons.* 

Hughes, Gloria B., Alexandria, Va., 3 opossums. 

Humphrey, Nancy, Chevy Chase, Md., black-widow spider. 

Huntt, Mrs. Henry S., Silver Spring, Md., blue jay. 

Hutchins, Miss, Bethesda, Md., Pekin duck. 

Ingham, Rex, Ruflin, N. C, 4 Ariel toucans, 2 smooth-scaled green snakes, 2 

corn snakes. 
Jenkins, Mrs. Louise N. M., Arlington, Va., raccoon. 
Jerome, Mrs. Wm., Alexandria, Va., Pekin duck. 
Jessup, Gordon L., Washington, D. C, pilot black snake. 
Johns Hopkins Research Center, Baltimore, Md., 13 chimpanzees.* 
Jones, Mrs. G. E,, Washington, D. C, guinea fowl. 
Joy, Jack, Kansas City, Mo., copperhead. 
Joyner, Harry S., Arlington, Va., snapping turtle. 
Kefauver, Senator Estes, Washington, D. C, skunk. 
Kent, W. W., Silver Spring, Md., 2 raccoons. 
Kerschbaum, Matt, Washington, D. C, horned lizard. 
Kid well, James, Washington, D. C, snapping turtle. 
Kitts, J. F., Washington, D. C, rhesus monkey. 
Kitts, Jean and Buddy, Washington, D. C, woodchuck. 
Knutson, Mrs. A. L., Chevy Chase, Md., Pekin duck. 
Kundahl, Mary Flo, Chevy Chase, Md., Pekin duck. 
Kuntz, Dr. Robert E., Cairo, Egypt, fennec fox, 3 sand skinks, 2 agamas, 5 

sand vipers, 3 horned vipers, 2 black vipers. 
Leas, Russell, Hoadly, Va., baby brown bat. 
Lebella, Mrs. Harry, Arlington, Va., Pekin duck. 
Lee, Mrs. Sally, Washington, D. C, giant land snail. 
Leslie, Carol, Washington, D. C, Pekin duck. 
Lewis, Patsy, Mount Rainier, Md., Pekin duck. 
Lister, H. E., Washington, D. C, Pekin duck. 
Lyon, L. P., Arlington, Va., 2 Pekin ducks. 
Mackellar, G. W., Hyattsville, Md., Pekin duck. 
Mackintosh, Hugh, Bethesda, Md., 3 water snakes. 
Maguire, Mrs. John A., Herndon, Va., pigeon. 
Manson, Mrs. P. R., Washington, D. C, raccoon. 
Manyette, Mr. and Mrs. Paul, Washington, D. C, mustached monkey. 



102 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

May, J. Qm Falls Church, Va., diamondback terrapin. 

McCabe, Elaine, and Knox, Bobby, Washington, D. C, large snapping turtle. 

McCabe, John, Arlington, Va., snowy owl.* 

McCoiirtney, Bruce, Norge, Va., 4 narrow-nosed frogs. 

McDonald, R., Chevy Chase, Md., rabbit. 

McEvoy, Miss H., Washington, D. C, 2 Pekin ducks. 

McKinley, Douglas, Washington, D. C, silkworm. 

McKnight, R. E., Avonda'e, Md., opossum. 

McMichael, B. F., Washington, D. C, weasel. 

Memory, Mrs. Amrion, Takoma Park, Md., Pekin duck. 

Mercarlo, Karen, Washington, D. C, 2 Pekin ducks. 

Miller, Patricia Anna, Washington, D. C, Pekin duck. 

Milner, James L., Takoma Park, Md., mole. 

Miner, Ernest H., Jr., Washington, D. C, 2 speckled king snakes,* 2 ornate 

whipsnakes,* red racer.* 
Mize, Mrs. A. M., Rockville, Md., 15 bantam fowl.* 
Monagon, Cathleen, Washington, D. C, robin. 
Monks, Tommy, Washington, D. C, American crow. 
Montgomery, C. R., Ringling Brothers Barnum & Bailey Circus, Sarasota, Fla., 

Indian python,* African python.* 
Mooney, Mrs. A., Arlington, Va., brown capuchin. 
Moore, Mrs. Bessie, Washington, D. C. cardinal. 
Moore, Laird C, Washington, D. C, Pekin duck. 
Morgan, Harriett, Silver Spring, Md., Pekin duck. 
Moriarity, Mrs. Wm. B., Chevy Chase, Md., rabbit. 
Muller, Mrs. E. D., Washington, D, C, red fox. 
Murray, M. L., Silver Spring, Md., 2 Pekin ducks. 
Musser, George, Arlington, Va., copperhead, timber rattler. 
Myers, Howard A., Silver Spring, Md., brown capuchin. 
National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md., through Samuel Poiley, 13 minks, 

13 ferrets. 
Nelson, Thurman M., Washington, D. C, screech owL 
Nugent, Robert, Greenbelt, Md., skunk. 

O'Donnell's Restaurant, through Mr. Burger, Washington, D. C, alligator. 
Pahlow, Mrs. H., Washington, D. C, 2 Cumberland terrapins. 
P.iraous, Col. M. V., Bethesda, Md., cardinal. 
Payne, Jack, Mount Rainier, Md., 2 Pekin ducks. 
Payne, Marie, Washington, D. C, red fox. 
Payton, Mary Lee, North Arlington, Va., chicken, Pekin duck. 
Pearson, S. H., Greenbelt, Md., snapping turtle. 
Peratino, Mrs. William, Silver Spring, Md., 2 Pekin ducks. 
Pet House, Washington, D. C, 4 prairie dogs. 
Petro, Mrs. Joseph, Washington, D. C, Pekin duck. 
Pickett, Lamar, Vienna, Va., pigeon hawk. 
Plavsky, Mrs. K. K., Washington, D. C, American crow. 
Potter, Mrs. Vergie, Washington, D. C., 4 Pekin ducks. 
Powell, Mr. and Mrs. J. H., Washington, D. C, horned lizard. 
Preston, John, Mount Pleasant, Pa., platinum fox. 
Pusey, George O., Falls Church, Va., titi monkey. 
Randolph, Frank, Lanham, Md., 4 American crows. 
Randolph, Susan, Washington, D. C, 2 Pekin ducks. 
Ray, Mrs. Nan C, Washington, D. C, yellow-naped parrot.* 
Relndel, John A., Alexandria, Va., mole snake. 



Secretary's Report. I')52. — Appendix 7 



Plate 3 




Recent Additions to the National Zoological Park Collections 

Left, Babv pvgmv hippopotamus {Choeropsis liberievsis) held by Assistant Hcadkccper 
Ralph Norris. The babv is known as "Gumdrop XII" as it is the twelfth py.u;my 
hippopotamus to be born in the Zoo. Right, Young Bornean small-loothcd civet 
{Arctogalidia trivirgata). Length of adults from tip of nose to base of tail, 1/ ic^ -I 
inches. The three continuous black stripes on the back from neck to hips distinguish 
them from the palm civets {Paradoxurus), of somewhat similar appearance. (Photo- 
graphs by Ernest P. Walker.) 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 103 

Rinehart, Max, Arlington, Va., Florida gallinule. 

Roberts, Burt, Washington, D. C, 2 barn owls. 

Roberts, H., Washington, D. C, mole snake. 

Robins, Martin, Silver Spring, Md., snapping turtle. 

Rodban, Kathleene, Washington, D. C, 2 Pekin ducks. 

Roger, J., Bethesda, Md., 6 black snakes. 

Rogers, Mrs. Margarette, Landover, Md., 2 albino ferrets.* 

Rollins, J. W., Mechanicsville, Md., bald eagle. 

Royer, Scott, Bethesda, Md., 2 black-widow spiders. 

Rubenstein, Stan, Washington, D. C, rabbit. 

Russel, R. D., Washington, D. C, Nias wattled mynah.* 

Ryan, Cathy, Washington, D. C, rabbit. 

Sakii, Patsy, Washington, D. C, robin. 

Sallwan, Walter C, Corona, Calif., tarantula. 

Sanders, Mrs. V. L., Arlington, Va., 3 Pekin ducks. 

Saunders, Jeannie, Washington, D. C, Pekin duck. 

Schaide, F. P., Arlington, Va., common loon. 

Scheid, Pat, and West, David, Chevy Chase, Md., 2 musk turtles. 

Schultz, Theodore A., Washington, D. C, hog-nosed snake, desert rattler.* 

Schwab, E. M., Richmond, Va., 4 Bengali finches. 

Scruggs, William, Washington, D. C, cottontail rabbit. 

Scurley, William, Bethesda, Md., 2 Pekin ducks. 

Seegers, Scott, McLean, Va., 2 blue jays.* 

Shepherd, Elsie M., Washington, D. C, 2 black-cheeked lovebirds,* canary.* 

Sherwood, W. Cullen, and Murphy, A. Page, Fairfax, Va., timber rattlesnake. 

Shomette, Petey, Landover Hills, Md., smooth-scaled green snake. 

Sidwell Friends School, Washington, D. C, 5 rabbits. 

Simonton, L. J., Washington, D. C, hamster. 

Sims, J. W., Hyattsville, Md., 3 grass parakeets. 

Singer, Mrs. Harold, Washington, D. C, 2 Pekin ducks. 

Sloane, E. K., Norfolk, Va., least tern. 

Smith, Mrs. B. H., Arlington, Va., 2 rabbits. 

Smith, Mrs. C, Jr., Arlington, Va., 2 Pekin ducks. 

Smith, Mrs. C. W., Washington, D. C, 2 Pekin ducks. 

Spangenberg, Earl J. M., Takoma Park, Md., 2 opossums. 

Sparks, P. W., Bladensburg, Md., banded krait, 2 Russell's vipers, 150 Indian 
finches.* 

Spikes, R. A., Alexandria, Va., 3 horned lizards. 

Stanley, A. C, Washington, D. C, 2 horned lizards. 

Steinbraker, Mrs. Louis, Alexandria, Va., margay cat. 

Swaney, W. K., Falls Church, Va., pilot black snake. 

Sweeney, J. M., Silver Spring, Md., Pekin duck, 4 mallard ducks. 

Swift, Joseph M., Washington, D. C, 2 Pekin ducks. 

Tager, Paul, Rockville, Md., 2 bam owls, gray fox. 

Taylor, Mary K., Washington, D. C, 2 hooded rats. 

Thompson, Mrs. Francis B., Washington, D. C, double yellow-headed parrot.* 

Thornton, Mrs. Allen F., Washington, D. C, 2 Pekin ducks. 

Tumber, Bill, Charlotte, N. C, Hamadryas baboon. 

Twentieth Century-Fox Studios, Washington, D. C, kangaroo. 

Tyrrell, W. Bryant, Takoma Park, Md., 4 smooth-scaled green snakes. 

United States Army Medical Unit in Malaya, through Lt. Col. Robert Traub, 
2 orangutans, 2 small-toothed civets, 4 ferret-badgei*s, 2 tree shrews, 4 Mount 
Kinabalu black rats, 1 Bornean ix)rcupine, 1 spineless hedgehog. 

226984—52 8 



104 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

United States Customs, Washington, D. C, 2 gi-ass parakeets.* 
United States Fish and Wildlife Service : 

Throiij^h John H. Buckalew, Cambridge, Md., Florida sandhill crane. 

Through Gardner Bump and State of New Mexico, 2 MacQueen's bustards. 

Through Vernon Ekedahl, Willows, Calif., 5 Hutchins's geese, 7 white-fronted 
geese, 10 snow geese, 17 cackling geese, 9 Ross's geese, 2 whistling swans. 

Through Dr. H. S. Mosby, Blacksburg, Va., golden eagle. 

Through Washington, D. C, oflSce, wood rat. 
United States Geological Sui-vey, Washington, D. C, through I. G. Sohn, 2 

horseshoe crabs. 
University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, Colo., through Hugo G. Ilodeck, 8 

prairie rattlesnakes. 
Van Dusen, Capt. E. R., Presidio of Monterey, Calif., Alexandrine parakeet. 
Van Tassel, Ed, San Antonio, Tex., 2 ribbon snakes,* garter snake,* swift lizard.* 
Van Tassel, Edward, Arlington, Va., copperhead snake.* 
Vazquez, Albert, Arlington, Va., black snake.* 
Vernon, J., Washington, D. C, sparrow hawk. 
Virgin, Elizabeth, Washington, D. C, skunk. 
Voigt, Paul, Washington, D. C, Pekin duck. 
Walkup, Joe, Landover, Md., tree frog. 
Walmsley, Alan, Arlington, Va., gopher tortoise. 
Walsh, Mrs. Katie, Washington, D. C, red fox. 
Walton, Mrs. A. I., Takoma Park, Md., blue jay. 
Warren, Mrs. Arthur L., Falls Church, Va., rabbit. 
Watkins, Jerry, Washington, D. C, hamster. 
Weaver, Mrs. G., East Riverdale, Md., raccoon. 
Weir, Mrs. R. H., Silver Spring, Md., worm snake. 
Wells, Dr. R. Loma, Washington, D. C, sparrow hawk. 
Whitaker, William J., Washington, D. C, Australian black swan. 
White, Mr., Richmond, Va., lion cub.* 
White, Melvin, Jefferson Heights, Md., barn owl. 
Whitman, Phily H., Laurel, Md., pilot black snake. 
Wicker, Nell, Chevy Chase, Md., 2 Pekin ducks. 
Wightman, F. E., Green Meadows, Md., timber rattler. 
Williams, Arthur, Washington, D. C, Muscovy duck. 
Williams, Sj'lvester, Washington, D. C, black racer, 2 mole snakes. 
Wilson, Steve and Tommy, Arlington, Va., 3 box turtles, 2 Pekin ducks. 
Winkle, Mrs. Barbara, Chevy Chase, Md., pied-billed grebe. 

Witt, Bill, Arlington, Va., fox snake, king snake, box turtle, Holbrook king 
snake,* fox snake,* 2 blue racers,* pilot black snake,* ribbon snake,* fence 
lizard,* 2 worm snakes,* green snake.* 
Wolf, J., Bellmead, Md., 2 mallard ducks. 
Xanten, Bill, Washington, D. C, snapping turtle, alligator. 
Young, Oliver B., Arlington, Va., snapping turtle. 
Zust, Ralph and James, Washington, D. O., opossum. 

BIRTHS AND HATCHINGS 

Animals that are kept on exhibition are usually not under conditions 
that are most favorable for breeding and raising young. However, 
occasionally young are born or hatched that are outstanding in their 
interest. The following were produced in the Zoo during the fiscal 
year: 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 105 

MAMMALS 
Scientific name Common name Number 

Ammotragus lervia Aoudad 4 

„ ^ [British Park cattle 2 

BoUaurus....... jwest Highland cattle _ 1 

Cephalophus nigrifrons Black-fronted duiker 1 

Cercopithecus aeihiops sabaeus X C. Green guenon X vervet guenon 1 

a. pygerythrus. 

Cervus nippon Japanese deer 1 

Choeropsis liberiensis Pygmy hippopotamus 1 

Comopithecus hamadryas Hamadryas baboon 1 

rv J [Brown fallow deer 4 

[White fallow deer 3 

Dasyprocta prymnolopha Agouti 2 

Erythrocehus patas Patas monkey 1 

Felis concolor Puma 3 

Felis leo Lion 5 

Giraffa camelopardalis Nubian giraffe 1 

Hippopotamus amphihius Hippopotamus 1 

Hydropotes inermis Chinese water deer 5 

Leontocebus rosalia Silky marmoset 2 

Llama glama Llama 2 

Macaca mulatta Rhesus monkey 2 

Mustela eversmanni Ferret 13 

Myocastor coypus Coypu 4 

Odocoileus virginianus Virginia deer 1 

Poephagus grunniens Yak 1 

Taurotragus oryx Eland 1 

Thalarctos maritimus X Ursus mid- Hybrid bear 4 

dendorffi,. 

Trichosurus vulpecula Australian long-eared opossum 3 

Wallabia agilis Agile wallaby 2 

BIRDS 

, , , , [Mallard duck 6 

Ana^platyrhynchos 1 White mallard duck 13 

Branta canadensis Canada goose 19 

Cygnus cygnus Whooper swan 2 

Gallus gallus Red junglefowl 1 

Gennaeus leucomelanus Nepal kaleege 2 

Haliaeetus leucocephalus Bald eagle 1 

Larus novaehollandiae Silver gull 1 

Streptopelia tranquebarica Blue-headed ring dove 2 

Taeniopygia castanotis Zebra finch 5 

Tigrisoma lineatum Tiger bittern 4 

REPTILES 

Agkistrodon mokesen Copperhead 3 

Naja tripudians Indian cobra 12 

It is gratifying to note that the pair of mole rats {Cryptomys 
lugardi) from southeastern Africa raised two young that were born 



106 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

last year. These are little-known burrowing creatures that somewhat 
resemble the pocket gophers of South America but are dark lead color 
witli a large white blotch on the forehead. Their front teeth project 
even more than in most rodents and are used in burrowing. 

MAINTENANCE AND IMPROVEMENTS 

The work of rehabilitating the large-mammal house, which was 
begun in the previous fiscal year, was completed December 10, 1951. 

Contract was let for the installation of zone heat regulators in the 
small-mammal and reptile houses. These should result in better con- 
trol of the temperature than has heretofore been possible and should 
effect enough of a saving in heat to more than pay for the 
installation. 

Every working day of the construction and maintenance depart- 
ment involves not only the routine work of cleaning the buildings and 
grounds, unstopping sewers and drains that have become clogged, 
repairing leaky faucets, broken windows, cages, cage doors, cage locks, 
and imiumerable other small items, but also additional jobs of some- 
what greater scope. The more important of these during the fiscal 
year were : 

1. Remodeled bear cage, between monkey house and lion house. 

2. Dismantled four old wooden animal shelters and replaced them with new 
brick-concrete shelters, in the line of cages above the reptile house. 

3. Made extensive repairs to all outside cages attached to the bird house, and 
painted them. 

4. Remodeled nine cages in the finch room at the bird house in new design, with 
plate glass covering upper half and electric-weld wire fabric covering lower half 
of cages. 

5. Applied bituminous concrete to areas between road curbing and sidewalks 
along main roadway to prevent erosion, eliminate mud, and lessen danger of 
visitors' stumbling into traffic. 

6. Installed new electric water heaters in annex No. 1 and in the lion house. 

7. Made general repairs to 100 wooden park benches. 

8. Cast new concrete bench legs and arms and concrete picnic-table tops. 

9. Repaired iron work and placed new where needed, and applied three coats 
of paint on large outdoor eagle cage. 

10. Dismantled old wooden shelters and replaced them with new brick-concrete 
shelters in large outdoor flight cage. 

11. Made general repairs to boilers in the central heating plant, conduit system, 
and heating systems within the buildings. In the central heating plant this in- 
volved replacement of all fire-box tubing in the three boilers ; cleaning and paint- 
ing the interior and exterior of the boilers; renewal of parts in the blow-off 
valves ; replacement of baffle walls, grates, and side bars. All steam and electric 
pumps and traps in the boiler room were overhauled, repaired and worn parts 
replaced, and the interior of the boiler room was painted. Throughout the 
heating system unserviceable steam lines were replaced. Worn parts in steam 
traps were repaired and steam traps that were beyond repair were replaced with 
new ones. Worn parts in the vacuum pumps were replaced where needed. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 107 

The fight to eradicate poison ivy in the Zoo gi'ounds is being con- 
tinued. This pest has been almost completely eliminated in those parts 
most frequented by the public, and control measures are being ex- 
tended to more remote sections to keep it from spreading to areas 
used by the public. Otherwise the long-established policy of leaving 
the woodlands undisturbed is being followed. 

Over a period of years there has been a gradual increase in the 
amount of trimming of trees along the roads, walks, and paths, and in 
the exhibition area. Because of their great age, some of the trees 
are dying and must be cut down. Others must be trimmed to re- 
move dead or broken limbs which might fall and injure people or 
animals, or damage automobiles or structures within the grounds. 

During the year a system was inaugurated of appointing tempo- 
rary intermittent policemen to serve on Saturdays, Sundays, and lioli- 
days during the seasons of unusually heavy attendance or to relieve 
regular men when necessary. This plan is proving highly satisfac- 
tory, as it makes more men available for the few days of the year 
when they are most urgently needed without maintaining a large 
permanent force. 

As in previous years the Zoo received gifts of various kinds of 
food that could not be sold for human consumption but was suitable 
for animals. This helps considerably to hold purchases to a minimum. 
Among the many kinds of such foods were 87,000 pounds of frozen 
skinned rabbits, frozen strawberries, frozen kale, and butter. Out- 
standing aid in supplying such material was given by W. Bruce 
Matthews, United States Marshal, who turned over food that was 
condemned through the courts. A considerable assortment came 
also from the Safeway Stores, Inc., which had suffered a fire at one 
of its establishments. From other sources there came 21 bags of 
English walnuts, 600 pounds of candy, 3,200 pounds of dog food, 25 
cases of assorted baby food, 46 cases of egg noodles, 15 cases of maca- 
roni, 100 cases of assorted dog and cat food, 450 pounds of turnips, 
and some avocados. The General Services Administration donated 
36 cases of prunes no longer suitable for human consumption. The 
Fish and Wildlife Service sent the Zoo more than 200 four-week-old 
chicks that had been used in certain experiments but were still suit- 
able for animal food. The National Institutes of Health, Navy Med- 
ical Center, and Army Medical Center gave mice, rats, guinea pigs, 
rabbits, and other animals no longer suitable for their purposes. 
The practice has been continued of picking up from grocery stores 
in the vicinity of the Zoo quantities of discarded green material such 
as cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, beet tops, and celery stalks. This 
provides an abundance of greens for the animals and helps reduce 
purchases of such foods. 



108 



ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 



VISITORS 

The estimated number of visitors to the Zoo was 3,294,569, or 
165,831 less than for the year 1951, a decrease due mainly to incle- 
ment weather in the spring of 1952, particularly on week ends and 
holidays, which deterred persons from the District of Columbia, Mary- 
land, and Virginia from visiting the Zoo. There was little change, 
however, in the record of automobile attendance and groups coming 
by bus. 

Estimated number of visitors for fiscal year 1952 



February 133, 900 

March 147, 650 

April 344, 719 

May 339, 500 

June 341, 500 



July (1951) 496,000 

August 459, 000 

September 379, 500 

October 311, 200 

November 149, 700 

December 86, 100 

January (1952) 105,800 Total 3,294,569 

Groups came to the Zoo from schools in Canada and 32 States, some 
as far away as Maine, Florida, Oklahoma, Kansas, and South Dakota. 
This was an increase of 31 groups and 7,874 individuals in groups 
over last year. 

Number of groups from schools 



Locality 



Alabama 

Canada. 

Connecticut 

Delaware... 

District of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana... 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine.. 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 



Number 


Number 


of groups 


m groups 


11 


1 
407 


1 


54 


12 


572 


9 


343 


149 


6,596 


7 


907 


46 


3,876 


4 


351 


9 


795 


4 


102 


1 


27 


18 


637 


J 


71 


8 


694 


619 


35, 381 


10 


356 


16 


1,159 


3 


85 



Locality 



Mississippi 

Missouri 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina.. 

Ohio.. 

Oklahoma 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina.. 
South Dakota. -. 

Tennessee 

Virginia 

Weft Virginia... 
Wisconsin 

Total 



Number 
of groups 



Number 
in groups 



2 

2 

1 

17 

66 

215 

67 

1 
266 

2 
35 

1 

24 

498 

65 

1 



2,191 



126 

60 

34 

1,150 

4,665 

8,795 

2,475 

23 

18,904 

75 

1,227 

20 

2,015 

26,967 

4,902 

21 



123,872 



About 2 p. m. each day the cars then parked in the Zoo are counted by 
the Zoo police and listed according to the State, Territory, or country 
from which they came. This is, of course, not a census of the cars 
coming to the Zoo but is valuable in showing the percentage of attend- 
ance, by States, of people in private automobiles. Many of the District 
of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia cars come to the Zoo to bring 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 



109 



guests from other States. The tabulation for the fiscal year 1952 is as 
follows : 



Percent 

Washington, D. C 31.0 

Maryland 22. 3 

Virginia 19. 

Pennsylvania 4. 3 

New York 2.6 

North Carolina 2. 3 



Percent 

Ohio 1. 7 

West Virginia 1.5 

New Jersey 1.4 

Massachusetts 1. 

Florida . 9 

Illinois . 8 



The cars that made up the remaining 11.2 percent came from every 
one of the remaining States, as well as from Africa, Alaska, Australia, 
Austria, Canal Zone, Cuba, El Salvador, England, Germany, Guam, 
Guatemala, Hawaii, Honduras, Japan, Mexico, Newfoundland, the 
Philippines, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. 

On the days of small attendance there are cars parked in the Zoo 
from at least 15 States, Territories, the District, and foreign countries. 
On average days there are cars from about 22 States, Territories, the 
District, and foreign countries; and during the periods of greatest 
attendance the cars represent not less than 34 different regions. 

NEEDS OF THE ZOO 

Replacement of antiquated structures that have long since ceased to 
be suitable for the purposes for which they are used is still the prin- 
cipal need of the Zoo. The more urgently needed buildings are : ( 1 ) 
A new administration building to replace the 147-year-old historic 
landmark now in use as an ofiice building but which is neither suitably 
located nor well adapted for the purpose ; (2) a new building to house 
antelopes and other medium-sized hoofed animals that require a 
heated building; and (3) a fireproof service building for receiving 
shipments of animals, quarantining animals, and caring for animals in 
ill health or those that cannot be placed on exhibition. 

It would be good economy in the long run to extend the steam 
conduit from the large-mammal house to the bird house, at an esti- 
mated cost of about $35,000. This would not only bring about a re- 
duction in actual heating cost but would obviate boiler repairs and 
replacements that may be necessary very soon, as two of the boilers 
are 25 years old. 

There is need for a veterinarian who can devote his entire time to 
assisting the animal department in selecting suitable foods, presenting 
foods to the animals in a satisfactory manner, practicing preventive 
medicine, and making autopsies to determine causes of death. The 
salary and operating cost for a veterinarian would be a good invest- 
ment, for with professional care the lives of many animals in the Zoo 
would undoubtedly be lengthened. 



110 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

The steadily increasing popularity of the Zoo, as a source of both 
entertainment and education, has developed such a volume of requests 
for information that there is now need for an additional scientist to 
share the load of answering queries and to assist in other administra- 
tive work so that the Director and Assistant Director can devote more 
time to general supervision of the Zoo and attention to visitors. 

ANIMALS IN THE COLLECTION JUNE 30, 1952 

MAMMALS 
MONOTREMATA 

Scientific name Common name Number 

Tachyglossidae: 

Tachyglossus aculeatus Echidna, or spiny anteater 2 

MARSUPIALIA 

Didelphiidae: 

Caluromys laniger Woolly opossum 1 

Didelphis virginiana Opossum 2 

Marmosa mitis Murine opossum 2 

Marmosa sp Murine opossum 1 

Phalangeridae: 

Petaurus norfolcensis Australian flying phalanger 9 

Trichosurus vulpecula Australian long-eared opossum 6 

Macropodidae: 

Dendrolagus inustus New Guinea tree kangaroo 1 

,, . , [Great gray kangaroo 2 

Macropus gtganteus i*,,- ^ i ■• 

[Albmo great gray kangaroo 1 

Macropus robustus Euro wallaroo 2 

Macropus ruf us Great red kangaroo 3 

Wallabia agilis Agile wallaby 2 

PRIMATES 

Tupaiidae: 

Tupai montana haluensis Kinabalu tree shrew 2 

Lemuridae: 

Lemur macaco Acoumba lemur ?• 

Lemur mongoz Mongoose lemur ^ 2 

Lorisidae: 

Nycticebus coucang Slow loris 1 

Cebidae: 

Aotus trivirgatus Douroucouli, or night monkey 2 

Ateles geoffroyi vellerosus Spider monkey 2 

Cebus opella Pale capuchin 5 

Cebus capucinus White-throated capuchin 1 

Cebus fatuellus Weeping capuchin 2 

Lagolhrix lagotricha Woolly monkey 1 

Callithricidae: 

Leontocebus rosalia Silky or lion-headed marmoset 4 

Saimiri sciureus Squirrel monkey 3 



SECRETARY'S REPORT HI 

Scientific name Common name Number 

Cercopithecidae : 

Cercocebus aterrimus Black-crested mangabey 2 

Cercocebus fuliginosus Sooty mangabey 3 

Cercopithecvs cethiops pygerythrus- Vervet guenon 2 

Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus Green guenon 7 

Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus X Hybrid, green guenon X vervet 2 
C. a. pygerythrus. guenon. 

Cercopithecus cephus Moustached guenon ._ 3 

Cercopithecus diana Diana monkey 3 

Cercopithecus diana roloway Roloway monkey 1 

Cercopithecus neglectus De Brazza's guenon 3 

Cercopithecus nictitans petaurista.. Lesser white-nosed guenon 1 

C&rcopithecus preussi Preussi's guenon 1 

Colobus polykomos White-tailed colobus 1 

Comopithecus hamadryas Hamadryas baboon 3 

Erythrocebus patas Patas monkey 3 

Macaca irus Crab-eating maco que 1 

Macaca irus mordax Javan macaque 4 

Macaca lasiotis Chinese macaque 1 

Macaca maurus Moor macaque 1 

Macaca mulatia Rhesus monkey 14 

Macaca nemestrina Pig-tailed monkey 1 

Macaca philippinensis Philippine macaque 6 

Macaca sin ica Toque, or bonnet monkey 1 

Macaca speciosa Red-faced macaque 1 

Macaca sylvanus Barbary ape 4 

Mandrillus leucophaeus Drill 2 

Mandrillus sphinx Mandrill 3 

Papio comatus Chacma baboon 2 

Papio cynocephalus Golden baboon 1 

Presbytis phayrei Phayre's langur 1 

Pongidae: 

Hylobates agilis X H. lar pileatus _ Hybrid gibbon 1 

Hylobates hoolock Hoolock gibbon 1 

Hylobates lar White-handed gibbon 1 

Pan troglodytes Chimpanzee 8 

Pongo pygmaeus abelii Orangutan 1 

EDENTATA 

Myrmecophagidae : 

Myrmecophaga tridactyla Giant anteater 2 

Bradypodidae : 

Choloepus didactylus Two-toed sloth 5 

Dasypodidae: 

Chaeiophr actus villosus Hairy armadillo 2 

LACOMORPHA 

Leporidae: 

Oryctolagus cuniculus Domestic rabbit 9 

Sylvilagus floridanus Cottontail rabbit 2 



112 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTE, 1952 

RODENTIA 

Scientific name Common name Numier 

Sciuridae: 

Callosciurus caniceps Southern Asiatic squirrel 1 

Callospermophilus lateralis Albino golden-mantled ground 1 

squirrel. 

Callospermophilus lateralis chry so- Golden-mantled ground squirrel-. 1 
deirus. 

Citellus beecheiji douglasii Douglas's ground squirrel 2 

Cynomys ludovicianus Plains prairie dog 15 

Marmota monax Woodchuck, or ground hog 6 

Tamias striatus Eastern chipmunk 2 

Heteromyidae: 

Dipodomys microps Small-faced kangaroo rat 1 

Cricetidae : 

Gerbillus pyramidum Pyramid gerbil 1 

Mesocricetus auraius Golden hamster 10 

Neotoma lepida Pack rat 1 

Ondatra zibethicus Muskrat 1 

Peromyscus maniculatus sonorien- Sonoran white-footed mouse 1 

sis. 

Tatera schinzi shirensis Nyasaland gerbil 1 

Muridae: 

Acomys cahirinus Egyptian spiny mouse 12 

Cricetojnys gambianus Giant pouched rat 5 

Mastomys coucha Multimammate mouse 1 

Mus musculus White and other domestic mice 10 

Phloeomys cumingi Slender-tailed cloud rat 4 

Rattus infraluteus Kinabalu giant rat 1 

„ ^, . [Hooded rat 2 

Kattus norvegicus Wn., 

^ [White rat 2 

Rattus sabanus Large spiny-backed tree rat 1 

Hystricidae: 

Acanthion brachyurum Malay porcupine 3 

Hystrix galeata African porcupine 2 

Trichys lipura Bornean porcupine 1 

Erethizontidae: 

Coendou sanctaemartae (or roth- Prehensile-tailed porcupine 1 

schildi). 

Caviidae: 

Cavia porcellus Guinea pig 15 

Dasyproctidae: 

Cuniculus paca Paca 4 

Dasyproda punctata Speckled agouti 2 

Dasyprocta sp Agouti 7 

Chinchillidae: 

Chinchilla chinchilla Chinchilla 1 

Lagidium viscaccia Peruvian viscacha 1 

Capromyidae: 

Myocastor coypus Coypu 3 

Ctenorayidae: 

Ctenomys sp Tuco-tuco 1 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 113 

Bcientiflc name Commonname Number 

Echimyidae: 

Euryzygomatomys sp Euryzygomatorays 1 

Thryonomyidae: 

Thryonomys sioinderianus Cane rat 1 

Bathyergidae: 

Crypiomys lugardi Mole rat 4 

CARNIVORA 

Canidae: 

Canis antarcticus Dingo 1 

Canis latrans Coyote 3 

Canis niger rufus Texas red wolf 2 

Fennecus zerda Fennec fox 3 

Nyctereutes procyonoides Raccoon dog 5 

Otocyon megalotis Big-eared fox 4 

Speothos venaiicus Bush dog 2 

Urocyon cinereoargenteus Gray fox 13 

Tr 7 ,, [Red fox 2 

Vulpes fulva <r,., . 

[Silver fox 5 

Ursidae: 

Euarcios americanus Black bear 3 

Helarcios malayanus Malay or sun bear 1 

Selenardos ihihetanus Himalayan bear 1 

Thalardos maritimus Polar bear 1 

Thalardos maritimus X Ursus JHybrid bear 4 

middendorffi. [Hybrid bear, second generation _ _ 1 

Tremarctos ornatus Spectacled bear 1 

Ursus ardos European brown bear 1 

Ursus ardos occidentalis Syrian brown bear 2 

Ursus gyas Alaskan Peninsula bear 2 

Ursus horribilis Grizzly bear 2 

Ursus middendorffi, Kodiak bear 1 

Ursus sitkensis Sitka brown bear 3 

Ursus sp Alaska brown bear 1 

Procyonidae: 

Bassariscvs astuius Ringtail, or cacomistle 1 

Nasua narica Coatimundi 6 

Nasua nelsoni Nelson's coatimundi 1 

Potos flavus Kinkajou 6 

Potossp Dwarf kinkajou 2 

{Raccoon 24 

Black raccoon 4 

Albino raccoon 1 

Mustelidae : 

Lutra canadensis vaga Florida otter 1 

Meles meles leptorynchus Chinese badger 1 

Mephitis mephitis nigra Skunk 11 

-_ . . /Ferret 10 

Mustela eversmanni iaiu- r «* o 

[ Albmo ferret -^ 

Mustela frenaia noveboracensis Weasel 2 

Mustela vison Mink 1 

Spilogale phenax California spotted skunk 1 

Taxideataxus American badger 5 



114 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

Scientific name Common name Number 

Viverridae : 

Arctogalidia trivirgata stigmatica. _ Small-toothed civet 1 

Civettictis civetia African civet 1 

Crossarchus obscurus Kusimanse 1 

Geneita tigrinus Genet 3 

Mijonax sanguineus Dwarf civet 1 

Nandinia binotata African palm civet 1 

Viverra tangalunga Ground civet 1 

Hyaenidae: 

Crocuta crocuta germinans East African spotted hyena 2 

Felidae: 

Felis chaus Jungle cat 1 

Felis concolor Puma 3 

Felis concolor X F. c. patagonica.- Hybrid, North American puma X 9 

South American puma. 

Felis leo Lion 6 

Felis onca Jaguar 3 

Felis pardab's Ocelot 1 

Felis pardus African leopard 4 

Felis tigrina Margay cat 1 

Felis tigris Bengal tiger 4 

Felis tigris sumatrae Sumatran tiger 1 

Herpailurus yaguarundi Yaguarundi 1 

Oncifelis geoffroyi Geoffroy's cat 2 

Oncilla pardinoides Lesser tiger cat 1 

PINNIPEDIA 

Otariidae: 

Zalophus californianus California sea-lion 3 

Phocidae: 

Phoca vitulina Harbor seal 1 

TUBULIDENTATA 

Orycteropodidae : 

Orycteropus afer Aardvark, or ant bear 1 



PROBOSCIDEA 

Elephautidae: 

Elephas maximus Asiatic elephant 3 

Loxodonia africana oxyotis African elephant 1 

PERISSODACTYLA 

Equidae: 

Equus burchellii antiquorum Chapman's zebra 1 

Equus burchellii bohmi Grant's zebra 3 

Equus caballus Horse 1 

Equus kiang Asiatic wild ass, or kiang 1 

Equus onager Onager 1 

Equus przewalskii Mongolian wild horse 2 

Rhinocerotidae: 

Diceros bicornis African rhinoceros 1 

Rhinoceros unicornis Great Indian one-horned rhinoc- 1 

eros. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 115 

ARTIODACTYLA 

Scientific name Common name Number 

Suidae: 

Phacochoerus aeihiopicus aeliani. _ East African wart hog 2 

Sus scrofa European wild boar 1 

Tayassuidae: 

Tayassu tajacu Collared peccary 2 

Hippopotamidae: 

Choeropsis liberiensis Pygmy hippopotamus 9 

Hippopotamus amphibius Hippopotamus 2 

Camelidae: 

Camelus hactrianus Bactrian camel 2 

Camelus dromedarius Single-humped camel 2 

Lama glama Llama 4 

Lama glama guanicoe Guanaco 3 

Lama pacos Alpaca 4 

Vicugna vicugna Vicuna 1 

Cervidae: 

Axis axis Axis deer 1 

Cervus canadensis American elk 5 

Cervus elaphus Red deer 1 

Cervus nippon Japanese deer 4 

Cervus nippon manchuricus Dybowsky's deer 2 

y>. J [Fallow deer 15 

Dama dama Wttu-^ r h j 

[W hite fallow deer 18 

Hydropoies inermis Chinese water deer 6 

Mazama sartorii Mazama 2 

Odocoileus virginianus Virginia deer 5 

Giraffidae : 

Giraffa camelopardalis Nubian girafife 5 

Giraffa reticulata Reticulated giraffe 1 

Bovidae: 

Ammotragus lervia Aoudad 21 

Bibos gaums Gaur 5 

Bison bison American bison 9 

Bos indicus Zebu 2 

„ I West Highland or Kyloe cattle 3 

[British Park cattle 8 

Bubalus bubalis Water buffalo 2 

Capra aegagrus cretensis Agrimi goat 1 

Cephcdophus maxwellii Maxwell's duiker 1 

Cephalophus nigrifrons Black-fronted duiker 2 

Hemitragus jemlahicus Tahr 2 

Oryx leucoryx Arabian oryx 1 

Ovis aries Woolless sheep 1 

Ovis europaea Mouflon 1 

Poephagus grunniens Yak 6 

Pseudois nayaur Bharal or blue sheep 1 

Syncerus caffer African buflFalo 3 

Taurotragus oryx Eland 3 



116 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

BIRDS 
SPHENISCIFORMES 

Scientifto name Common name Numler 

Spheniscidae: 

Spheniscus demersus Jackass penguin 3 

Spheniscus humboldti Humboldt's penguin 3 

STRUTHIONIFORMES 

Struthionidae: 

Struthio camelus Ostrich 1 

RHEIFORMES 

Rheidae: 

Rhea americana Common rhea 3 



CASUARIFORMES 

Casuariidae: 

Casuarius casuarius aruensis Aru cassowary 1 

Casuarius unappendiculatus occip- Island cassowary 1 

italis. 

Casuarius unappendiculatus un- One-wattled cassowary 1 

appendiculatus. 
Dromiceiidae: 

Dromiceius novaehollandiae Common emu 4 

TINAMIFORMES 

Tinamidae: 

Crypturellus cinnamomeus Salle's tinamou 7 

Crypturellus idoneus Santa Marta tinamou 8 

Crypturellus soui Little tinamou 1 

PELECANIFORMES 

Pelecanidae: 

Pelecanus erythrorhynchus White pelican 2 

Pelecanus occidentalis occidentalism^ Brown pelican 2 

Pelecanus onocrotalus Old World white pelican 2 

Sulidae: 

Sula daciylatra Blue-faced booby 1 

Phalacrocoracidae : 

Phalacrocorax auritus albociliatus. _ Farallon cormorant 1 

CICONIIFORMES 

Ardeidae: 

Ardea herodias Great blue heron 2 

Hydranassa tricolor ruficollis Louisiana heron 1 

Leucophoyx thula Snowy egret 3 

Notophoyx novaehollandiae White-faced heron 1 

Nyctanassa violacea Yellow-crowned night heron 1 

Nycticorax nycticorax hoactli Black-crowned night heron 29 

Tigrisoma lineatum Tiger bittern 3 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 117 

Scientiflc name Common name Number 

Balaenicipitidae : 

Balaeniceps rex Shoebill 1 

Cochleariidae: 

Cochlearius cochlearius Boat-billed heron 1 

Ciconiidae: 

Ciconia alba White stork 1 

Dissoura episcopus Woolly-necked stork 1 

Ibis cinereus Malayan painted stork 1 

Jabiru mycteria Jabiru 1 

Leptoptilus crumeniferus Marabou 1 

Leptoplilus dubius Indian adjutant 1 

Leptoptilus javanicus Lesser adjutant 2 

Mycteria americana Wood ibis 1 

Threskiornithidae : 

Guara alba WTiite ibis 4 

Guara alba X G. rubra Hybrid, white ibis X scarlet ibis. _ 1 

Guara rubra Scarlet ibis 3 

Threskiornis melanocephala Black-headed ibis 1 

Threskiornis spinicollis Straw-necked ibis 1 

Phoenicopteridae : 

Phoenicopterus antiquorum Old World flamingo 2 

Phoenicopterus chilensis Chilean flamingo 6 

Phoenicopterus ruber Cuban flamingo 2 

ANSERIFORMES 

Anhimidae: 

Chauna torquaia Crested screamer 3 

Anatidae : 

Aix sponsa Wood duck 3 

Anas brasiliensis Brazilian teal 1 

,, ^ , [Mallard duck 52 

Anas platyrhynchos jwhite mallard duck 3 

Anas platyrhynchos X Dafila Hybrid, mallard duck X pintail 1 

acuta. duck. 

Anas platyrhynchos domestica Pekin duck 60 

Anas poecilorhyncha Indian spotted-bill duck 2 

Anas rubripes Black duck 3 

Anser albifrons White-fronted goose 5 

Anser albifrons suhsp Greenland white-fronted goose — 1 

Anser anser domestica Toulouse goose 2 

Anseranas semipalmata Australian pied goose 1 

Aythya affinis Lesser scaup 1 

Aythya fuligula Tufted duck 1 

Aythya valisineria Canvasback duck 2 

Branta canadensis Canada goose 38 

Branta canadensis occidentalis Wliite-cheeked goose 12 

Branta canadensis X Chen caeru- Hybrid, Canada goose X blue 2 

lescens. goose. 

Branta hutchinsii Hutchins's goose 4 

Branta hutchinsii minima Cackling goose 26 

Branta ruficollis Bed-breasted goose 2 

Cairina moschata Muscovy duck 4 

Cereopsis novaehollandiae Cape Barren goose 4 



118 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

Scientific name Common name Number 

Anatidae — Continued 

Chen ailantica Snow goose II 

Chen hyperborea Lesser snow goose 2 

Chen rossi Ross's snow goose 12 

Chenopis atrata Black swan 7 

Chloephaga leucoptera Upland goose 2 

Coscoroba coscoroba Coscoroba 1 

Cygnopsis cygnoides Domestic swan-goose 2 

Cygnus columbianus Whistling swan 2 

Cy gnus cy gnus Whooper swan 4 

Dafila acuta Pintail 3 

Dafila spinicauda Chilean pintail 1 

Dendrocygna autuinnalis Black-bellied tree duck 52 

Eulabeia indica Bar-headed goose 7 

Mareca americana Baldpate 1 

Metopiana peposaca Rosy-billed pochard 2 

Netta rufina R,ed-crested pochard 2 

Nettion carolinense Green-winged teal 1 

Pledropterus gambiensis Spur- winged goose 2 

Querquedula cyanoptera Cinnamon teal 1 

Querquedula discors Blue- winged teal 2 

Tadorna tadorna Shelldrake 2 

FALCONIFORMES 

Cathartidae: 

Cathartes aura Turkey vulture 1 

Coragyps atratus Black vulture 3 

Gyps Tueppelli Rtippell's vulture 2 

Sarcoramphus papa King vulture 2 

Vultur gryphus Andean condor 2 

Sagittariidae: 

Sagittarius serpentarius Secretarybird 2 

Accipitridae: 

Aquila chrysaetos canadensis - Golden eagle 1 

Buteo fuscescens Red-backed buzzard 2 

Buteo jamaicensis Red-tailed hawk 8 

Buteo lineatus lineatus Red-shouldered hawk 3 

Buteo platypterus Broad-winged hawk 1 

Buteo poecilochrous Buzzard eagle 1 

Buteo swainsoni Swainson's hawk 2 

Haliaeetus leucocephalus Bald eagle 5 

Haliaeetus leucogaster White-breasted sea eagle 2 

Haliaeetus leucoryphus Crowned sea eagle 1 

Haliastur indus Brahminy kite 3 

Harpia harpya Harpy eagle 1 

Milvago chimango Chimango 3 

Milvus migrans parasitus African yellow-billed kite 2 

Spizaetus ornatus Black-and-white hawk eagle 1 

Falconidae; 

Falco mexicanus Prairie falcon 1 

Falco sparverius Sparrow hawk 2 

Polyborus plancus South American caracara 3 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 119 

CALLIFORMES 

Scientific name Common name yumher 

Megapodiidae : 

Alectura lathami Brush turkey 2 

Cracidae: 

Crax alberti Blue-cered curassow 5 

Crax panamensis Panama curassow 2 

Crax rubra Yello w-cered curassow 4 

Ortalis motmot Chachalaca 2 

Penelope boliviana Crested guan 3 

Phasianidae: 

Argusianus argus Argus pheasant 1 

Colinus virgmianus Bobwhite 3 

Crossoptilon auritum Blue-eared pheasant 1 

Bantam fowl 17 

Gallus gallus • Fightingf owl 6 

Red junglefowl 3 

Gennaeus albocristatus White-crested kaleege 1 

Gennaeus leucomelanus Nepal kaleege 2 

Gennaeus nycthernerus Silver pheasant 2 

Hierophasis swinhoii Swinhoe's pheasant 2 

Odontophorus gujanensis marmo- Marbled Guiana quail 1 

ratus. 

Pavo cristaius Peafowl 12 

_,- . , . [Ring-necked pheasant 5 

Phasianus torquatus i-trru^ • i j i. j. n 

[White rmg-necked pheasant 2 

Numididae: 

Acryllium vulturinum Vulturine guineafowl 1 

Guttera plumifera schubotzi Uele crested guineafowl 2 

^y ., , . [Guineafowl 2 

Numtda meleagris iTtru-i - e ^ o 

^ [White gumeaf owl 2 

Meleagrididae: 

Agriocharis ocellata Ocellated turkey 3 

Meleagris gallopavo Wild turkey 1 

CRUIFORMES 

Gruidae: 

Anthropoides virgo Demoiselle crane 2 

Balearica pavonina West African crowned crane 2 

Balearica regulorum gibbericeps East African crowned crane 1 

Grus canadensis Sandhill crane 1 

Grus leucauchen White-naped crane 1 

Grus leucogeranus Siberian crane 1 

Psophiidae: 

Psophia crepitans Gray-backed trumpeter 1 

Psophia viridis Green-backed trumpeter 1 

RaUidae: 

Aramides cajanea Wood rail 2 

Fulica americana American coot 3 

Gallinula chloropus cachinnans Florida gallinule 3 

lonornis martinica Purple gallinule 2 

Laterallus leucopyrrhus Black-white crake 2 

Porphyria poliocephalus South Pacific swamp hen 2 

226984—52 9 



120 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

Bcientiftc name Common name Number 

Eurypygidae: 

Eurypijga helias Sun bittern 1_ 2 

Carianiidae : 

Cariama cristata Cariama or seriama 2 

Otidae : 

Chlamijdotis undulata macqueenii-- MacQueen's bustard 2 

CHARADRIIFORMES 

Recurvirostridae : 

Himanto'piis mexicanus Black-necked stilt 

Burhinidae : 

Burhinus bistriatus South American thick-knee 

Haematopodidae : 

Haematopus ostralegus European oystercatcher 

Charadriidae : 

Charadrius vociferus Killdeer 

Laridae : 

Larus argentatus Herring gull 

Larus delawarensis Ring-billed gull 

Larus dominicanus Kelp gull 

Larus novaehollandiae Silver gull 



COLUMBIFORMES 

Columbidae : 

Columha livia Domestic pigeon 

Columba nigrirostris Short-billed pigeon 

Gallicolumba luzonica Bleeding-heart dove 

Goura victoria Victoria crowned pigeon. 

Streptopelia decaocto Ring-necked dove 

Streptopelia tranquebarica Blue-headed ring dove. _ 

Zenaida asiatica White-winged dove 

Zenaidura macroura Mourning dove 



PSITTACIFORMES 

Psittacidae: 

Agapornis nigrigenis Black-cheeked parakeet 

A mazona ae tiva Blue-fronted parrot 

Amazona auropalliata Yellow-naped parrot 

Amazona ochrocephala Yellow-headed parrot 

Ama zona oratrix Double yellow-headed parrot. 

Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus Hyacinthine macaw 

Ara ararauna Yellow-and-blue macaw 

Ara macao Red, blue, and yellow macaw. 

Ara militaris Green macaw 

Aratinga pertinax Rusty-cheeked parrot 

Brotogerys jugularis To vi parakeet 

Callocephalon fimbriatum Gang-gang cockatoo 

Caly%torhynchus magnificus Banksian cockatoo 

Domicella gorrula Red lory 

Forpus cyanopygius Little green parakeet 

Kakatoe alba White cockatoo 

Kakatoe ducrops Solomon Islands cockatoo 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 121 

Scientific name Common name dumber 

Psittacidae — Continued 

Kakatoe galerita Large sulphur-crested cockatoo. . _ 12 

Kakaioe haematuropygia Red-vented cockatoo 1 

Kakaioe leadbeateri Leadbeater's cockatoo 18 

Kakatoe moluccensis Great red-crested cockatoo 1 

Kakatoe sanguineus Bare-eyed cockatoo 7 

Melopsitiacus undulatus Grass parakeet 6 

Nestor notahilis Kea 1 

Nymphicus hollandicus Cockatiel 1 

Pionus mensiruus Blue-headed conure 1 

Platycerus eximus Rosella parakeet 2 

Polytelis swainsoni Barraband's parakeet 8 

Psittacula eupatria Red-shouldered parakeet 1 

Psittacula krameri Kramer's parakeet 1 

Psittacus erithacus African gray parrot 1 

CUCULIFORMES 

Cuculidae: 

Eudynamys scolopacea Koel 1 

Musophagidae: 

Tauraco corythaix South African turaco 1 

Tauraco donaldsoni Donaldson's turaco 1 

Tauraco persa Purple turaco 3 

STRICIFORMES 

Tytonidae: 

Tyto alba pratincola Barn owl 7 

Strigidae: 

Bubo virginianus Great horned owl 7 

Ketupa ketupu Malay fishing owl 1 

Nydea nyctea Snowy owl 1 

Strix varia varia Barred owl 11 

TROGONIFORMES 

Trogonidae : 

Pharomachus mocino Quetzal 2 



CORACIIFORMES 

Alcedinidae: 

Dacelo gigas Kookaburra 2 

Coraciidae: 

Anthracoceros coronatus Pied horiibill 2 

Bucorvus abyssinicus Abyssinian ground hornbill 1 

Momotidae : 

Baryphthengus martii Great rufous motmot 1 

Momotus lessoni Lesson's motmot 4 

PICIFORMES 

Capitonidae: 

Megalaima asiatica Blue-throated barbet 1 

Megalaima zeylonica Streaked barbet 1 



122 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

Scientiflo name Common name Num1>er 

Ramphastidae: 

Ptcroglossus torquatus Ringed toucanet 9 

Ramphastos ariel Ariel toucan 2 

Ramphastos carinaius Sulphur-breasted toucan 3 

Ramphastos culminatus White-breasted toucan 1 

Ra mphaslos innominatus Todd's toucan 1 

PASSERIFORMES 

Cotingidae : 

Cephalopterus ornatus Umbrellabird 1 

Chasmorhynchus nudicoUis Bellbird 1 

Rupicola rupicola Orange cock-of-the-rock 4 

Rupicola sanguinolenta Scarlet cock-of-the-rock 2 

Corvidae: 

Corvus brachyrhynchos American crow 6 

Corvus corax principalis Northern raven 1 

Corvus insolens Indian crow 2 

Corvus monedula Jackdaw 3 

Cyanocitta cristata Blue jay 1 

Cyanocorax chrysops Urraca jay 6 

Gymnorhina hypoleuca White-backed piping crow 1 

Pica nuttdli Yellow-billed magpie 1 

Pica pica hudsonica American magpie 3 

Urocissa caerulea Formosan red-billed pie 2 

Ptilorhynchidae : 

Ptilonorhynchus violaceus Bowerbird 8 

Paradiseidae : 

Paradisa rubra Red bird-of-paradise 2 

Paradisornis rudophi Prince Rudolph's bird-of-paradise _ 2 

Timaliidae : 

Garrulax bicolor White-headed laughing thrush 2 

Pycnonotidae: 

Heterophasia capistratra Black-headed sibia 

Pycnonotus leucogenys : White-cheeked bulbul 

Mimidae: 

Mimus polyglottos polyglottos Eastern mockingbird 

Mimus polyglottos leucopterus Western mockingbird 

Toxostoma rufum Brown thrasher 

Turdidae: 

Geokichla dtrina Orange-headed ground thrush 

Hylocichla mustelina Wood thrush 

Platycichla flavipes Yellow-footed thrush 

Turdus migratorius Eastern robin 

Bombycillidae: 

Bomby cilia cedrorum Cedar waxwing 

Sturnidae: 

Acridotheres tristis Common mynah 

Gracula religiosa Wattled mynah 

Gracula religiosa robusta Nias wattled mynah 

Giacupica melanoptera White starling 

Lamprocolius purpureus Glossy starling 

Spreo superbus Superb starling 

Sturnia malabarica Gray-headed mynah 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 123 

Scientific name Common name Number 

Ploceidae : 

Aegintha temporalis Sydney waxbill 8 

Aidemosyne canians Tawny waxbill 3 

Aidemosyne malaharica Indian sil verbill 2 

Aidemosyne modesta Plum-headed finch 2 

Alisteranus cinctus Parson finch 2 

Amadina fasciata Cut-throat weaver finch 5 

Amandava amandava Strawberry finch 14 

Diatropura procne Giant whydah 3 

Estrilda astrild Red-eared waxbill 6 

Estrilda cinerea Common waxbill 1 

Euplecies franciscana. . Bishop weaver 5 

Euplectes orix Red bishop weaver 2 

Hypochera ultramarina Combasou or indigobird 1 

Lonchura leucogastroides Bengali finch 1 

Munia maja White-headed munia 1 

Munia malacca Black-throated munia 1 

Munia punctulata Spice finch 16 

Padda oryzivora Java sparrow 14 

Passer domesticus House sparrow 1 

Ploceus hay a Baya weaver 2 

Ploceus vitellinus Vitelline masked weaver 6 

Poephila acuticauda Long-tailed finch 3 

Ouelea quelea Red-billed weaver 1 

Sporaeginthus melipodus Orange-cheeked waxbill 12 

Steganopleura bichenovii Bicheno's finch 1 

Steganura paradisea Paradise whydah 4 

Taeniopygia castanotis Zebra finch 12 

Uraeginthus bengalus Cordon-bleu finch 4 

Icteridae: 

Amblyrhamphus holosericeus Scarlet-headed blackbird 1 

Icterus giraudi Giraud's oriole 3 

Molothrus bonariensis Shiny cowbird 1 

Notiopsar curaeus Chilean blackbird 2 

Pezites defilippii Military starling 1 

Quiscalus quiscula Purple grackle 1 

X anthocephalus xanthocephalus Yellow-headed blackbird 1 

Xanthornis angustifrons Oropendula 1 

Thraupidae : 

Calospiza ruficapilla Brown-headed tanager 1 

Piranga olivaceae Scarlet tanager 1 

Piranga rubra Summer tanager 1 

Ramphocelus carbo Silver-beaked tanager 1 

Ramphocelus dimidiatus Crimson tanager 2 

Ramphocelus fiammigerus Yellow tanager 2 

Ramphocelus passcrinii Passerini's tanager 1 

Thraupis cana Blue tanager 8 

Thraupis palmarum Black-winged palm tanager 1 

Fringillidae: 

Carpodacus mexicanus Mexican house finch 

Carpodacus purpureus calif ornicus. California purple finch 1 

Cyanocompsa argentina Argentine blue grosbeak 1 

Lophospingus pusillus Black-crested finch 1 



2 



124 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

Scientific name Commonname Number 

Fringillidae — Continued 

Melopyrrha nigra Cuban bullfinch 1 

Melospiza melodia Song sparrow 1 

Paroaria cucullata Brazilian cardinal 1 

Paroaria Qularis nigro-genis Black-eared cardinal 1 

Passerella iliaca Fox sparrow 1 

Passerina ciris Painted bunting 1 

Passeriyia cijanea Indigo bunting 1 

Pheucticus aureoventris Black-and-yellow grosbeak 2 

Phrygilus fruticeti Mourning finch 2 

Phrygilus gayi Gay's gray-headed finch 1 

Poospiza torquata Ringed warbling finch 2 

Richmondena cardinalis Cardinal 2 

Serinus canarius Canary 10 

Serinus icterus Green singing finch 1 

Sicalis luteola Saffron finch 20 

Sporophila aurita Hicks's seedeater 1 

Sporophila gutturalis Yellow-billed seedeater 16 

Sporophila melanocephala Black-headed seedeater 2 

Tiaris olivacea Mexican grassquit 1 

Volatinia jacarina Blue-black grassquit 1 

Zonotrichia alhicollis White-throated sparrow 2 

REPTILES 
LORICATA 

Crocodylidae: 

A lligator mississipiensis Alligator 30 

Alligator sinensis Chinese alligator 2 

Caiman latirostris Broad-snouted caiman 1 

Caiman sclerops Spectacled caiman 4 

Crocodylus acutus American crocodile 4 

Crocodylus cataphractus Narrow-nosed crocodile 1 

Crocodylus niloticus African crocodile 2 

Crocodylus porosus Salt-water crocodile 1 

Osteolaemus tetraspis Broad-nosed crocodile 3 

SQUAMATA 

Sauria 
Gekkonidae: 

Tarentola cubana Gecko 1 

Thecadactylus rapicaudus Gecko 4 

Agamidae: 

Physignathus lesueuri liCsueur's water dragon 2 

Xenosauridae: 

Xenosaurus laticaudatus Broad-tailed lizard 1 

Gerrhosauridae: 

Gerrhosaurus flavigularis Yellow-throated plated lizard 3 

Gerrhosaurus major Greater African plated lizard 9 

Zonosaurus ornatus Ornate lizard 1 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 125 

Scientific name Common name Number 

Iguanidae: 

Anolis carolinensis American anolis, or false chame- 5 

leon. 

Anolis eqiiestris Giant anolis 5 

Anolis porcatus Lagartila verde 2 

Anolis sp Giant anolis 1 

Basiliscus harbouri Barbour's basilisk 1 

Conolophus suhcristatus Galdpagos iguana 2 

Cyclura macleayi Cuban iguana 3 

Iguana iguana Common iguana 1 

Phrynosoma hlainvillei California horned lizard 6 

Phrynosoma cornutum Horned lizard 2 

Sauromalus ohesus Chuckwalla lizard 4 

Sceloporus undulatus Pine or fence lizard 4 

Zonuridae: 

Zonurus giganteus African spiny lizard 1 

Helodermatidae: 

Heloderma horridum Mexican beaded lizard 3 

Heloderma suspectum Gila monster 2 

Varanidae: 

Varanus niloticus African monitor 1 

Varanus sp African monitor 1 

Lacertidae: 

Eremias mucronata Egyptian sand lizard 3 

Lacerta ocellata Eyed lizard 3 

Scincidae: 

Chalcides ocellatus Skink 2 

Chalcides sp Sand skink 2 

Egernia cunninghami Cunningham's skink 1 

Egernia whitii White's skink 13 

Eumeces fasciatus Blue-tailed skink 2 

Serpentes 

Boidae: 

Boa canina Green tree boa 2 

Boa enydris Colombian boa 1 

Constrictor imperator Central American boa 32 

Epicrates cenchria Rainbow boa 5 

Eunectes murinus Anaconda 1 

Python molurus Indian rock python 1 

Python regius Ball python 1 

Python sebae African python 2 

Colubridae: 

Acrochordus javanicus Elephant trunk snake 1 

Boaedon lineatum Brown house snake I 

Boiga dendrophila Mangrove snake 1 

Coluber constrictor Black snake 6 

Diadophis punctatus Ring-necked snake 2 

Drymarchon corais couperi Indigo snake 2 

Elaphe obsoleta Pilot snake 10 

Elaphe obsoleta confinis Southern pilot snake 1 

Eryx thebaicus Dassa's snake 3 

Lampropeitis getulus boylii Boyle's king snake — 1 



126 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

Scientiflc name Common name Numl)er 

Colubridae — Continued 

Lampropeliis getidus getulus Chain or king snake 2 

Lampropeltis getulus holbrooki Holbrook's king snake 1 

Lampropeltis getulus splendida Sonoran king snake 1 

Lampropeltis rhombomaculata Mole snake 3 

Matrix sp Water snake 9 

Opheodrya vernalis Smooth-scaled green snake 1 

Oxybelis acuminatus Pike-head snake 1 

Phrynonax sulphureus Falire cobra 2 

Pituophis catenifer Western bull snake 1 

Pituophis melanoleucus Pine snake 5 

Rhinocheilus lecontei LeConte's snake 2 

Storeria dekayi DeKay 's snake 2 

Thamnophis elegans Arizona garter snake 2 

Thamnophis sirtalis Garter snake 1 

Zamenis florulentus Egyptian racer 3 

Elapidae: 

Dendroa^pis viridis Green mamba 1 

Micrurus fulvius Coral snake 2 

Naja haje Egyptian cobra 1 

Naja hannah Kingcobra 1 

Naja tripudians Indian cobra 3 

Viperidae: 

Vipera russellii Russell's viper 1 

Crotalidae: 

Agkistrodon mokeson Copperhead snake 2 

Agkistrodon piscivorus Cottonmouth moccasin 3 

Crotalus atrox Western diamondback rattlesnake. 2 

Crotalus cerastes Sidewinder rattlesnake 2 

Crotalus horridus Timber rattlesnake 7 

Crotalus mitchelli Desert rattlesnake 2 

Crotalus tigris Tiger rattlesnake 1 

Crotalus tortugensis Tortuga rattlesnake 1 

Crotalus viridis viridis Prairie rattlesnake 1 

TESTUDINATA 

Chelydidae: 

Batrachemys nasuta South American side-necked 2 

turtle. 

Chelodina longicollis Australian long-necked turtle 2 

Chelys fimhriata Matamata turtle 2 

Hydraspis sp Cagado or South American snake- 1 

necked turtle. 

Hydromedusa tectifera South American snake-necked 15 

turtle. 

Platemys platycephala Flat-headed turtle 1 

Kinosternidae : 

Kinosternon suhruhrum Mud turtle 5 

Sternotherus odoratus Musk turtle 5 

Chelydridae: 

Chelydra serpentina Snapping turtle 8 

Testudinidae: 

Batagur baska Indian fresh-water turtle 1 

Chrysemys picta Painted turtle 8 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 127 

Scientific name Common name Number 

Testudinidae — Continued 

Clemmys guttata Spotted turtle 6 

Clemmys insculpta Wood turtle 5 

Cyclemys amboinensis Kura kura box turtle 1 

Emydura kreffiii KreflFt's turtle 3 

Emydura macquariae Murray turtle 10 

Emys orbicularis European pond turtle 1 

Gopherus polyphemus Gopher turtle 2 

Graptemys barbouri Barbour's turtle 7 

Graptemys geographica Map turtle 3 

Kinixys erosa Hinged-back turtle 2 

Malaclemys centrata Diamond-back turtle 4 

Pelomedusa galeata African water turtle 1 

Pelusios sinuatus Yellow-bellied water turtle 4 

Pseudemys concinna Cooter 1 

Pseudemys elegans Mobile turtle 12 

Pseudemys ornata subsp Central American turtle 4 

Pseudemys rubriventris Red-bellied turtle 1 

Pseudemys troostii Cumberland turtle 2 

Terrapene Carolina Box turtle 50 

Terrapene major Florida box turtle 3 

Terrapene triunguis Three-toed box turtle 2 

Testudo ephippium Duncan Island turtle 2 

Testudo graeca Grecian turtle 2 

Testudo hoodensis Hood Island turtle 2 

Testudo tabulata South American turtle 2 

Testudo vicina AJbemarle Island turtle 5 

Trionychidae: 

Amyda ferox Soft-shelled turtle 9 

Amyda triunguis West African soft-shelled turtle. _ 1 

AMPHIBIANS 
CAUDATA 

Salamandridae : 

Triturus pyrrhogaster Red Japanese salamander 17 

Triturus torosus Giant newt 2 

Triturus viridescens Common nev/t (of the United 1 

States) . 

Amphiumidae: 

Amphiuma means Congo eel 1 

Cryptobranchidae : 

Megalobatrachus japonicus Giant Japanese salamander 4 



SALIENTIA 



Bufonidae: 

Bufo alvarius Western green toad 

Bufo americanus Common toad 

Bufo bufo European toad. 



Bufo calamita Natterjack toad 3 

Bufo marinus Marine toad 9 



Bufo paracnemis Rococo toad 2 

Bufo viridis European green toad 2 



128 



ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 2 



Scientific name Common name 

Discoglossidae: 

Bomhina homhina Red-bellied toad 

Bombina voriegata Yellow-bellied toad 

Leptodactylidae : 

Ceratophrys calcarata Colombian horned frog___ 

Ceraiophrys ornata Argentine horned frog 

Hylidae: 

Hyla septentrionalis South American tree frog. 

Pipidae: 

Xenopus mulleri Miiller's clawed frog 

Ranidae: 

Rana adspersa African bull frog 

Rana cateshiana Bull frog 

Rana clamitans Green frog 

Rana esculenta European edible frog 

Rana pipens Leopard frog 



Number 

4 
5 



FISHES 

Anabas testudineus Climbing perch 

Anoptichthys jordani Blind characin 

Barbus everetti Clown barb 

Brachydanio albolineatus Pearl danio 

Carassius auratus Goldfish 

Danio rerio Zebra fish 

Hemigrammus ocellifer Head-and-tail-light fish. 

Hyphessobrycon innesi Neon tetra 

Kryptopterus bicirrhos Glass catfish 



12 
3 
2 
1 
2 



4 
8 
2 

1 
5 
8 
2 
10 
10 



Lebisies reiiculatus Guppy 1 00 

Lepidosiren paradoxa South American lungfish 

Mesonauta insignis 

Pristella riddlei Tetra 

Protopterus annectans African lungfish 

Rasbora heteromorpha Rasbora 

Tanichthys albonubes White Cloud Mountain fish 

Trichogaster trichopterus Blue gourami 



ARACHNIDS 

Lairodectus mactans Black- widow spider. 

INSECTS 
Blabera sp Giant cockroach 

MOLLUSKS 

Achaiina achatina Giant land snail 



2 

1 
2 
2 
10 
2 
2 

2 

100 

4 



STATUS OF THE COLLECTION 



Class 



Mammals.. 

Birds 

Reptiles 

Amphibians 
Fish 



Species or 
subspecies 



189 

322 

137 

23 

17 



Individ- 
uals 



679 

1,179 

513 

27 

171 



Class 



Arachnids. 

Insects 

Mollusks... 

Total 



Species or 
subspecies 



691 



Individ- 
uals 



100 
4 



2.675 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 129 

Sumnuiry 

Animals on hand July 1, 1951 2,821 

Accessions during the year 1, 575 



Total number of animals in collection during the year 4,396 

Removals for various reasons such as death, exchanges, return of animals 

on deposit, etc 1,721 



In collection on June 30, 1952 2,675 

Kespectfully submitted. 

W. M. Mann, Director. 
Dr. A. Wetmore, 

Secretary^ Smithsonian Institution. 



APPENDIX 8 

Report on the Astrophysical Observatory 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the opera- 
tions of the Astrophysical Observatory for the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1952 : 

The work of the Astrophysical Observatory is divided between 
two units: the division of astrophysical research, for the study of 
solar radiation problems, and the division of radiation and organisms, 
established "to undertake those investigations dealing with radiation 
bearing directly or indirectly upon biological problems." In addi- 
tion to their regular programs, both divisions are conducting coopera- 
tive projects with other Government agencies. The division of astro- 
physical research at its Chilean field station maintains certain seismo- 
graphic records for the Coast and Geodetic Survey and also records 
solar radiation received upon exposed fabrics, under contract with the 
Office of the Quartermaster General. The division of radiation and 
organisms has in progress special experiments for the Atomic Energy 
Commission and for the Biological Department, Chemical Corps, 
Camp Detrick, Md. 

During the year the metal and glass work shops serving both divi- 
sions of the Observatory were materially improved by the installation 
of modern lighting equipment, re-arrangement of the machines, re- 
painting, reflooring, and the addition of specially built cabinets for 
storing raw materials. The instrument makers now operate with 
less eye strain, more convenience, and greater safety. 

In August 1951 the Director of the Observatory attended meetings 
of the Sub-Commission on Actinometry of the World Meteorological 
Organization held at Brussels, Belgium. In the resolutions adopted 
by the Sub-Commission, the Smithsonian silver-disk pyrheliometer, 
designed and developed by Dr. C. G. Abbot, is recommended as an 
instrument for the measurement of direct solar radiation. 

DIVISION OF ASTROPHYSICAL RESEARCH 

The question of establishing a field station in the Clark Mountain 
(Calif.) region, mentioned in previous reports, is still undetermined. 

W. H. Hoover, chief of the division, spent July and part of August 
at the Table Mountain (Calif.) field station, directing the work pro- 
gram and testing several new devices. 

130 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 



131 



The ninth revised edition of the Smithsonian Physical Tables is in 
press. At the end of the fiscal year, Dr. Forsythe, who prepared the 
manuscript, had corrected approximately one-third of the galley 
proof. 

y^orlc in Washington. — The checking and appraisal of observations 
of sun and sky radiation made at two high-altitude field stations, 
Montezuma (Chile) and Table Mountain (Calif.), have continued 
under the direction of Mr. Hoover. Some progress has been made in 
the preparation of material for a new volume of the Annals of the 
Astrophysical Observatory. 

Incident to the review of results during the past decade, an exam- 
ination was made to determine what, if any, relationship is apparent 
between the solar-constant record and the number of sunspots. During 
the last maximum of sunspots in 1947, the total number of spots was 
greater than during any maximum since 1778. In 1947 the number 
averaged 151.6. In 1778 it was 154.4. The next greatest maximum, 
139.1, occurred in 1870. A curve is here presented showing monthly 
mean values of the solar-constant compared with monthly means of 
sunspot numbers for the same days. It includes all solar constants 
graded fair or better during the 11-year period 1940 to 1951. A fairly 
regular increase in solar constants is apparent with increasing sunspot 
numbers. 



1.950 



J>9 



SL8 

J 



17 



1|6 



12 



%-^' 



• 12^,^,^. 



10 



10 



T 



11.' 
/ 
/ 



f- 

I 
I 
I 
I 

Jl3 



(The number rear each point 
indicates the nur.bcr of «wnthly 
means included in each group.) 



Vi^.JlO 



1. 



m 



30 75 

Sunspot numbers 



100 



12r 



150 



i7b 



200 



Figure 1. 



-Monthly mean values of the solar constant compared with monthlj- 
means of sunspot numbers for the same days. 



132 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

Orders for silver-disk pyrheliometers, built in our shops and cali- 
brated against the Smithsonian standard pyrheliometer, have con- 
tinued to come in. During the year five instruments were prepared 
and sold at cost, as follows : 

S. I. No. 84 to Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France. 

S. I. No. 87 to Helsinki, Finland. 

S. I. No. 88 to Institute for Scientific Research, Central Africa. 

S. I. No. 89 to National Observatory of Athens, Greece. 

S. I. No. 90 to University of Rhode Island. 

As of now, a total of 89 silver-disk pyrheliometers have been fur- 
nished by the Astrophysical Observatory to interested observatories 
and institutions in many lands, thus making available throughout the 
world the Smithsonian standard scale of radiation. In addition, five 
Angstrom compensation pyrheliometers, modified in certain details as 
experience has dictated, were built and calibrated. Three were sold 
at cost to the Belgium Consulate General for use in the Belgian Congo. 

During the year certain electronic devices were procured as funds 
permitted. These include a photopen recorder, Golay detector, and 
electron multiplier photometer. Tests are in progress to determine 
their most advantageous application to our special needs. 

For five years, 1926 to 1931, the Astrophysical Observatory occupied 
Mount Brukkaros in Southwest Africa as a field observing station. 
At the request of the Meteorological Service of South Africa, the 
Smithsonian observations of total solar radiation during this period 
on Mount Brukkaros were summarized and made available for publica- 
tion in a new compendium of South African solar-radiation data. 

The Smithsonian standard water-flow pyrheliometer, against which 
substandard comparisons were larst made on Mount Wilson (Calif.) in 
1947 by Dr. Abbot and Mr. Aldrich, has been overhauled and tested 
by Mr. Hoover. It is planned to mount this standard instrument 
at Table Mountain in the near future for a new series of comparisons 
against our silver-disk substandards. 

An important study by Mr. Hoover is in progress, designed to clear 
up certain elusive characteristics of the silver-disk pyrheliometer, 
such as the cause of the temperature correction which it is found 
necessary to apply. 

A special pyranometer was prepared for future testing at Table 
Mountain. Its vestibule permits the rapid insertion of four suc- 
cessive filters, transmitting different wavelength bands. Such a device 
should indicate variations in haze more certainly than does the 
pyranometer without filters as ordinarily used. It is hoped that this 
filter pyranometer may prove an important aid in determining atmos- 
pheric transmission values required in short-method solar-constant 
observations. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 133 

At the request of the United States Weather Bureau, another si>ecial 
pyranometer was prepared and calibrated for use in standardizing the 
Weather Bureau's network of Eppley pyrheliometers. A leveling 
device and automatic shutter control were added to the pyranometer. 

Last year's report mentioned a cooperative arrangement with the 
Meteorological Division, Chemical Corps, Camp Detrick, Md., to de- 
velop a new improved type of melikeron, for the measurement of out- 
going radiation from the earth to space. One of these instruments 
has been completed and tested at Camp Detrick. A paper describing 
this development was read by Dr. S. C. Stern of Camp Detrick at the 
July meeting of the American Meteorological Society. 

Dr. C. G. Abbot, research associate, has continued his studies of 
relationships between solar and terrestrial phenomena. His results 
are described in several papers in volume 117 of the Smithsonian 
Miscellaneous Collections. 

Work in the -field. — In May 1952 a new series of tape exposui-es was 
started at the Montezuma station, under contract with the Office of 
the Quartermaster General. These exposures are a continuation of 
the Quartermaster studies to determine the causes of the deterioration 
of tentage materials. The tapes include samples of various textiles, 
and the exposures and radiation measurements are similar to those 
described in former years. 

At the Table Mountain station, the interesting study discussed in 
last year's report, to determine the quantity of ozone in the upper 
atmosphere from our daily holographic records, continued under the 
direction of Dr. Oliver K. Wulf, of the U. S. Weather Bureau and 
the CaUfornia Institute of Technology. Dr. Wulf has improved the 
means for obtaining absolute values of the ozone from long-method 
days. He then uses the long-method results to calibrate the relative 
values obtained from the short-method observations at air mass 2.5. 

In July 1951 Mr. Hoover tested the double spectroscope set up in 
the new tunnel at Table Mountain. He reports that, unfortunately, 
the device is not sufficiently rigid to give satisfactory results. Con- 
siderable alteration will be necessary. Mr. Hoover also prepared and 
installed a very satisfactory device for recording the steadiness of 
the sky during each holograph. It consists of a sensitive thermo- 
element mounted in the coelostat beam. The resulting galvanometer 
deflection, recorded upon a rotating drum, is an index of the steadiness 
of the sun and sky radiation during each holograph. This record 
has proved helpful in appraising pyrheliometer and pyranometer 
readings at Table Mountain, where sudden changes in water vapor 
content and quality of haze occur fairly frequently. 



134 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

DIVISION OF RADIATION AND ORGANISMS 
(Report prepared by R. B. Withrow) 

In last year's report the developmental responses of seedlings to 
light were discussed as to the possible biochemical reactions involved 
in the absorption of the light energy and the subsequent regulatory 
mechanism responsible for the development of seedlings into normal 
plants. The indications were that these growth or photomaturation 
responses were not directly associated with either chlorophyll syn- 
thesis or photosynthesis, but no strong photomaturation response had 
been obtained without detectable traces of chlorophyll. The problem 
remained, therefore, to secure leaf expansion and stem development 
approaching the normal occurring in sunlight without chlorophyll 
synthesis or photosynthesis. 

During the past year bean seedlings were grown under a series of 
seven irradiances respectively of blue (436 m/x) , red (630-700 mix) , and 
far red (710-1100 m/i and 725-1100 m/x) radiant energy. The extent 
of the photomaturation response was measured by taking weights of 
the leaves, and weights and lengths of the hypocotyl and epicotyl por- 
tions of the plants. Analysis for protochlorophyll, chlorophyll, 
carotenoid, and anthocyanin pigments were made in order to obtain 
a picture of the photosynthesis and photodecomposition of these pig- 
ments. 

The maximum photomaturation response occurred in the red where 
the maximum chlorophyll synthesis and anthocyanin synthesis also 
occurred. With blue of the same energy as the red, the leaf expansion 
and decrease in hypocotyl length were much reduced. Although the 
amount of chlorophyll was less in the blue than the red, it was not 
decreased in proportion to the decrease in photomaturation response. 
In the far red, very marked photomaturation occurred at the lower 
irradiances employed without any measurable synthesis of chloro- 
phyll, which first appeared with this region at 10^ microwatts per 
square centimeter. Since all measurements were made with 10-cm. 
cells in a Beckman spectrophotometer, it is safe to assume that prac- 
tically no chlorophyll was synthesized under these low-irradiance far- 
red conditions. Therefore, the evidence is conclusive that the photo- 
maturation responses are not directly concerned either with chloro- 
phyll synthesis or photosynthesis, but are due to a regulatory mech- 
anism associated witli a pigment having absorption in the far red. 
Absorption of this pigment also occurs in the blue, with the maximum 
in the red. 

In addition, there is clear evidence that the synthesis of anthocyanin 
is also a photochemical response, separate and distinct from photo- 
synthesis. Anthocyanin was always present in plants grown in com- 
plete darkness, but very marked increases occurred with the addition 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 135 

of all wavebands employed. Anthocyanin synthesis was maximal in 
the red, which was from ten to one hundred times as efficient as the 
blue. At 10~^ microwatts per square centimeter, the anthocyanin 
content of plants grown with the red was doubled as compared to 
that of those in complete darkness. In the far red, where no photo- 
synthesis could have occurred because of the absence of chlorophyll, 
the anthocyanin increased eighteen times with the 710-1100 ni/x region 
and ten with the 725-1100 m/x region at the 10-microwatt energy level. 
This appears to be strong evidence that, contrary to previous theories, 
the light effect on anthocyanin synthesis is only indirectly related 
to photosynthesis and that anthocyanin synthesis can be the conse- 
quence of an independent photochemical reaction. 

A second phase of the research has been concerned with the effect 
of growth regulators on the uptake of various nutrient salts by bean 
seedlings. It was reported previously that the nitrates, chlorides, 
and sulfates of potassium, calcium, and magnesium were absorbed 
less rapidly by plants treated with 10 y of ammonium 2,4-D on the 
leaf or bud than by untreated plants. The reduction in uptake occure 
within 24 to 48 hours after the application of the growth regulator as 
measured by a continuously recording electronic conductance bridge. 
These reduced uptake patterns appear to be chiefly related to decreased 
growth of the plants treated with the growth regulator. Unlike the 
other nutrient salts tested potassium acid phosphate, while eventually 
absorbed less rapidly when 2,4-D is used, is taken up by the treated 
plants at an increased rate for a short period beginning about G hours 
from the time of application of the regulator. Other work has indi- 
cated that about 6 hours is approximately the length of time required 
for the ammonium 2,4-D to reach the roots of bean seedlings. This 
increased rate of absorption has not as yet been correlated with any 
change in metabolism of the seedling. 

Respectfully submitted. 

L. B. Aldrich, Director. 

Dr. A. Wetmore, 

Secretary^ Smithsonian Institution, 



226984 — 52 10 



APPENDIX 9 
Report on the National Air Museum 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the activi- 
ties of the National Air Museum for the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1952 : 

GENERAL STATEMENT OF CONDITIONS 

The phase of Museum operations that caused the greatest con- 
cern and required most concentration of effort throughout the year 
was the care of the storage collection at Park Kidge, 111. It will be 
recalled from previous annual reports that the former Douglas DC-4: 
Transport Airplane Plant there was the collecting depot for signifi- 
cant and historic aircraft selected for preservation by General of 
the Air Force H. H. Arnold. When these were turned over to the 
National Air Museum in 1949, it was believed most economical to 
leave them there until an adequate building could be provided in the 
Washington, D. C, area for the entire collection. An efficient or- 
ganization was brought together by the Museum to preserve and guard 
these stored aircraft. Meanwhile that locality became designated 
as O'Hare Field, Chicago International Airport, and several United 
States Air Force units were established there, the Museum paying- 
rent to the Air Force for the space it occupied in Building T-6. To 
that storage facility the Museum brought other aircraft and mate- 
rials that could not be exhibited or cared for on the Washington prem- 
ises in the Smithsonian buildings. It was believed that this facility 
would continue to operate until Congress gave further consideration 
to the report presented to that body by the Smithsonian, in re- 
sponse to the section in the Act of Establishment which authorized 
the planning of an adequate building. 

With the advent of war in Korea it became evident that Govern- 
ment resources must be concentrated upon the production of combat 
aircraft instead of applied to the care of historic ones, and early in 
the fiscal year the international situation reacted directly upon the 
Air Museum when, on July 12, 1951, an eviction notice was served 
by the Air Force requiring removal of all Museum stored material 
from the premises in Building T-6. Because of the national emer- 
gency the needs of the Air Force required expanded manufacturing 
facilities for aircraft and it had been decided to reactivate Building 
136 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 137 

T-6 for aircraft production. While efforts were being made by the 
Museum to obtain use of premises in the northwest corner of the air- 
port, it was learned that temporary housing for part of the storage 
collection could be provided in Building T-7, an adjacent hangarlike 
structure where Bays 6 and 6 totaling 60,000 square feet could be rented 
to the Museum. With winter approaching, this move to T-7 was 
better than undertaking the project of rehabilitating the quarters in 
the northwest corner of the airport, but because the space in T-7 
would provide less than half of the area required it was necessary to 
place the remainder outdoors between Buildings T-6 and T-7. The 
problem of protection was partly met by choosing those specimens that 
could best withstand exposure, covering them with protective coat- 
ings and surrounding the area with a fence, so arranged that the 
largest boxes provided windbreaks for the aircraft. By moving to 
T-7 the eviction from T-6 was complied with 5 weeks ahead of the 
deadline of January 15. 

Hardly had this move been started, however, before the Museum 
was served with notice to vacate Building T-7 by February 1, in 
order that those bays could be used for a fighter-interceptor squadron 
that is part of the air defense of the city of Chicago. This could 
not be complied with because no place could be located or prepared 
to receive the Museum material. Meanwhile the disassembling and 
packing project was expedited and more material was moved outdoors. 

Modifications in Air Force decisions involving the use of these 
premises relaxed the pressure on the Museum to move and permitted 
planning on a more efficient, longer-range basis. Because the ultimate 
destination of this stored material is Washington, D. C, or vicinity, 
The National Capital Planning Commission was asked to assist. 
Following previous application for a site for a permanent National 
Air Museum Building, the Commission had recommended using a 
part of the Suitland building area. The Commission agreed to assign 
a 21-acre plot of this area for a storage site. 

Using funds that had been saved for the most part by reduced 
rental charges at Park Ridge, the area at Suitland was surveyed, a 
roadway and building areas were cleared, and six prefabricated But- 
ler buildings were purchased. Remaining funds for 1052 sufficed 
for the erection of only two buildings. With granting of the 1953 
appropriation the other four buildings can be erected, and a portion of 
the material at Park Ridge can be shipped. The efforts made at Park 
Ridge by the Museum manager and assistants to preserve the material 
there in spite of these conditions are detailed in another section of this 
report. 

The enforced concentration upon storage problems has necessarily 
reduced the amount of time that could be a implied by the Washington 
office to local requirements. Here the exhibition program continues 



138 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 2 

to suffer from lack of space, and activities are limited by the relatively 
small force of personnel, yet every effort has been made to keep a 
high standard for the displays and informational services that are 
the two principal ways in which the Museum serves the public. These 
and other activities of the bureau are covered further in this report. 

There have been changes and reductions in personnel, the most im- 
portant being the retirement on April 30, 1952, of Carl W. Mitman 
after 41 years with the Smithsonian, closing his career in the position 
of Assistant to the Secretary for the National Air Museum. His 
thorough knowledge of museum techniques, educational methods, and 
Government procedures, combined with excellent administrative 
ability, gave to the National Air Museum a firm foundation during 
the critical days of its establishment. Paul E. Garber was made head 
curator on April 10. 

Following the retirement of Mr. Mitman, the bureau gave up its 
administrative quarters in the northeast corner of the Arts and In- 
dustries Building, concentrating the offices in the group of rooms 
erected several years ago in the opposite corner of the same building. 

The accessions for the year have brought additions to many parts of 
the collection, including full-sized aircraft, engines, instruments, 
experimental and scale-model aircraft, parachutes, and trophies. 
They also are evidence of a growing recognition of the function of 
the National Air Museum by other Government departments, the air- 
craft industry, and individuals who with confidence can entrust their 
significant treasures to the bureau's custody, enabling the Museum 
to not only keep abreast of recent developments but also to fill gaps 
in the background story. 

ADVISORY BOARD 

No meetings of the Board were held during the year; there was 
one change in personnel, Maj. Gen. Donald L. Putt, U. S. A. F., being 
replaced by Maj. Gen. Laurence G. Craigie, U. S. A. F. He and 
members of his staff have been particularly helpful in enabling adjust- 
ments to be made between the limited resources of the Museum and 
the eviction schedule of the Air Force at Park Ridge; and also in 
effecting the preparation of the site for the new storage area at Suit- 
land, Md. The naval member of the Board, Rear Adm. Thomas S. 
Combs, and his civilian assistant for Museum liaison, Alfred V. 
Verville, have cooperated closely with the Museum officials in pre- 
paring and transferring selected naval specimens to the Museum and in 
preserving other significant naval air items on naval premises until 
the Museum can take custody of them. The civilian presidential 
appointees to the Board, Grover Loening and William B. Stout, have 
been of frequent assistance in recommending that certain desirable 
objects be procured and in offering other helpful suggestions. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 139 

STEPHENSON BEQUEST 

Separate mention was made in the previous report of the be(iuest 
of George H. Stephenson of Philadelphia, Pa., to provide for the Air 
Museum an appropriate statue of Maj. Gen. William Mitchell. 
During this fiscal year Smithsonian officials with the cooperation of 
the Fine Arts Commission gave consideration to the designs and 
capabilities of a number of sculptors. 

SPECIAL EVENTS AND DISPLAYS 

For the annual meeting of the Smithsonian Board of Regents, held 
on January 18, the Air Museum prepared a display based on the recent 
development and use of helicopters, featuring as the central unit the 
prototype example of the "Hoppi-Copter," designed by Edward Pen- 
tecost as a manually supported helicopter for individual transporta- 
tion. With this was shown a scale model of the Sikorsky XR--i, 
which accomplished the first cross-country helicopter trip in America, 
1942. The original XR-4 is in the Museum collection but is stored 
for lack of exhibition space. Grouped with the scale model were a 
number of photographs illustrating the other full-sized helicoptei^ in 
the collection. Of this group of eight, space is available for exhibit- 
ing only two. 

The twenty-fifth anniversary of Col. Charles Lindbergh's trans- 
Atlantic flight in the Spirit of St. Louis increased the normally high 
interest in this airplane. Assistance was given to a number of authors, 
historians, and photographers who were recording the anniversary 
and to managers of radio and television programs who included ref- 
erences to this occasion in their broadcasts. Colonel Lindbergh him- 
self visited the Museum during this period and sat once again at the 
controls of his plane as he made some notes on the flights in 1927 ; his 
commendation upon the excellent condition of this airplane, which has 
been in the Museum continuously since 1928, was most gratifying. 

In connection with construction of the shop in the Aircraft Build- 
ing last year a broad space was provided on its outer wall, adaptable 
for pictorial displays. With the cooperation of Consolidated Vultee 
Aircraft a series of photographic enlargements was selected and 
mounted there, illustrating the progress of design throughout the 
history of that company, ranging from the PT-1 of 1925 to the huge 
B-36 of today. The Museum intends to rotate this type of exhibit and 
will be pleased to make this same space available to other aircraft 
companies for similar displays. 

SURVEY 

The search for desirable specimens to add to the collection, and con- 
tacts to determine their characteristics and significance were carried 



140 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 2 

out this year largely by correspondence, most of the Museum's funds 
for travel being utilized for trips between Washington and the stor- 
age facility at Park Ridge, for administrative purposes. The results 
of survey are reflected in the list of accessions which is in the last 
pages of this Report. The following trips were primarily for survey 
purposes : 

July 17, by the associate curator, Robert Strobell, to Lancaster, Pa., to inspect 
at the factory of Valley Frocks, Inc., a group of early parachutes and other 
equipment dating back to World War I. 

August 14, by the curator, to Detroit, Mich., and vicinity, to check progress 
on scale models of aircraft under construction and inspect aeronautical material 
assembled for the Air Show display. 

March 20, by the associate curator, to Dayton, Ohio, to confer regarding details 
of drawings of the Wright Brothers' Kitty Hawk aeroplane, and to discuss cur- 
rent projects at the Air Force Technical Museum. 

March 24, by the curator, to Philadelphia, Pa., and vicinity, to examine a group 
of aircraft engines offered to the Air Museum by the Navy, to inspect a Fairehild 
FC-2 photographic airplane offered by Virgil Kauffman and to discuss develop- 
ments in air photography with oflacials and technicians of the Aero Service 
Corporation. 

IMPROVEMENTS IN SPECIMENS AND EXHIBITS 

One of the outstanding specimens received during the year is the 
original experimental radio-controlled model which, through free- 
flight test, provided vital data for the design, construction, and op- 
eration of the Consolidated XPoY-l flying boat. Unfortunately this 
model, 1 : 10 size, had been badly damaged in transit. Its repair con- 
stituted a problem that required a knowledge of the original proce- 
dures as well as the skill of expert modelmakers. This combination 
of talents was embodied in the designer who was responsible for de- 
veloping this progressive method of aircraft testing, Ernest Stout, 
and the exhibits workers of the Museum, Winthrop Shaw and assist- 
ant Peter Bisio. Working together they have restored the model to 
its original appearance. Another model restored in the shop is an 
original small glider of E. C. Huffaker, who worked as assistant to 
Professor Langley and made a brief visit to the camp of the Wright 
Brothers at Kitty Hawk in 1901. In the wall cases surrounding the 
outer wall of the new shop in the Aircraft Building, displays of na- 
tural flight, early concepts of human flight, lighter-than-air craft, and 
parachutes are being placed. Because these are elementary phases 
of aeronautics and the cases are near the entrance to the building they 
constitute an interesting introduction to the exhibits. Other exhibi- 
tion cases that have been improved during the year include the one in 
which an early airfield is shown with aircraft of the period 1908-16, 
the case containing famous trophies that have inspired progress in 
aircraft design and performance, the memorial case to Amelia Ear- 
hart, and the three large cases in which progressive types of airplanes 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 141 

used by the Navy, Air Force, and Air Mail are grouped in chronologi- 
cal sequence. Several additional models, listed in the lot of acces- 
sions at the end of this report, have expanded these groups. 

Usual cleaning and preservation treatments were given to the Li lien- 
thai glider, the Kitty Hawk^ Spirit of St. Loxih^ Fokker D-7, Grum- 
man F3F GulfJiai.ok-2^ and Republic F-84 Thunderjet. Manne- 
quins with clothing resembling that of Otto Li 1 lent ha 1 and Orville 
Wright were prepared with the cooperation of the L. A. Darling 
Co., and placed in the glider and Kitty Hawl\ making their methods 
of control much more understandable to the public. The progres- 
sive line-up of power units along "Engine Row'' in the Aircraft 
Building continued to be improved by rearrangements, additions, and 
selective substitutions. Tw^o important specimens were put on dis- 
play; namely, original rockets developed by Robert Goddard 
(1882-1945) who, in some of his earlier experiments was assisted by 
grants from the Smithsonian and later by the Daniel and Florence 
Guggenheim Foundation. These rockets, sliowing types of 1934—35 
and 1939-41, were conditioned and labeled with the helpful assistance 
of Mrs. Goddard; additions to this group will soon be added. The 
display of the Hispano Suiza engine of World War I has been im- 
proved by placing with it two large photographs received from S. E. 
M. Hispano Suiza, Colombes (Seine), France, illustrating the orig- 
inal Birkigt design of 1916, and the engine used by the renowned 
French ace George Guynemer. 

Each of the accessions received during the year that could be ex- 
hibited provided an improvement in the displays ; it is regretted that 
lack of space prevents showing all of them. The Navy Department 
was responsible for adding 10 engines to the collection, several of them 
from the earliest years of human flight; but the outstanding addition 
was received from the Curtiss-Wright Corporation, with grateful ac- 
knowledgment to George Page, prominent aircraft designer, who 
has helped to protect this wonderful relic throughout the yeai*s until 
it could be placed in permanent care. This famous engine is the 
prototype for those made by Glenn Curtiss for the early airships of 
Thomas Baldwin and the pioneer airplanes then being developed by 
the Aerial Experiment Association headed by Alexander Graham 
Bell. Curtiss decided to test this engine in a motorcycle, and at Day- 
tona Beach, Fla., January 24, 1907, established a world record for 
human speed that lasted for many years — 137 miles per hour. As 
a motorcycle, this specimen is unique, but as a test bed for an airplane 
engine it is one of the most renowned in aeronautical history. The 
collection of trophies was greatly improved this year by the receipt 
of one of the most famous, the Collier Trophy, which since 1911 has 
inspired progress. Of the 35 awards of the Collier Trophy to date, 
25 of them are now represented among the Air Museum's collections. 



142 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

The Collier Trophy, together with the Brewer Trophy and the Klemin 
Plaque, will be withdrawn briefly each year for succeeding presenta- 
tions and then returned to the Museum for continued public view; 
but the Wright Brothers' Memorial Trophy is the original replica 
example and will remain permanently in the Museum. Two examples 
of impressive contrast are provided by new accessions; these are the 
"Gibson Girl" radio, used for emergency rescue in World War II, com- 
pared to the Lear automatic pilot and radio equipment used by Capt. 
C. F. Blair, Jr., in his polar flight from Norway to Alaska in 1950; 
and the reproduction of the original Wright Brothers' wind tunnel, 
1902, compared with a modern precision steel wind-tunnel model of 
the Grumman F7F Tigercat. Other accessions supplement existing 
exhibits. These are the model of the Gloudster received from Douglas 
Aircraft as an auxiliary specimen to their World Cruiser Chicago; and 
the droppable landing gear used in the take-offs for Wiley Post's 
substratosphere flights. Both the Chicago and Post's Winnie Mae 
have been in the collection for many years. Also in this category 
are the original telemetering and film instruments used in the super- 
sonic flights of the Air Force's Bell X-1, which, now that they have 
been released by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, 
can be placed with the plane in the Aircraft Building. Among 
the year's accessions, perhaps the most prophetic specimen is the 
Delta wing model, one of the basic concepts of this design. Further 
mention of each new specimen is given in the last part of this report. 

STORAGE 

Some of the difficulties encountered in finding quarters for housing 
the Air Museum's storage collection have been described. Among the 
assembled aircraft five were maintained flyable and of those, two — 
the B-29 Enola Gay and the B-17-D Swoose — were flown to other 
storage areas. The Beechcraft Bonanza Waikiki Beech was, at the 
request of the donors. Beech Aircraft, returned to them. The Douglas 
XB-42 Mixmaster was disassembled and moved away by truck to an 
Air Force storage area. Even after most of the boxed material had 
been moved into Building T-7, another partial move had to be made 
within the building when the roof developed serious leaks, and speci- 
mens had to be kept away from the dripping and puddling water. 
Following a careful scrutiny by the Advisory Board and officials of 
the Air Force and Air Museum of the aircraft that had been gathered 
at Park Ridge, 16 were scheduled during the fiscal year for separation 
from the collection. The handling of these planes as they left for 
other Air Force Bases or educational institutions and elsewhere was 
a large task. Disassembly of nine full-scale aircraft preparatory to 
boxing presented unique problems because many of these were obsolete 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 143 

or of foreign make with little or no printed data available to <;oveni 
procedure. Twenty-five aircraft were boxed during the year, each 
one presenting its own problems of handling, placing, bracing, and 
enclosing; 30 boxes were required for the total, some planes needing 
extra containers for v.'ings and components. ^lany of the boxes in 
which aircraft had originally been received required repair during the 
year, and all those that were placed outdoors had to be roofod with 
waterproof covering and sprayed with heavy Abesto liquid. This 
exterior protection supplemented the careful coating of the aircraft 
and engines inside with Parelketone, Cosmolene, and other applica- 
tions, each best suited to the surface being protected. Nine engines 
were boxed during the year, but at the close of June all 151 engines 
were due for another inspection, preservative coating, and dehydra- 
tion treatment. In many instances the handling, disassembly, and 
preservation of specimens required special study and care by the staff 
to determine best procedures. 

Because of the precarious status of the storage housing, few items 
of new material were brought to Park Ridge. Enforced concentra- 
tion on other aspects of the work left no opportunity for inventory- 
ing, but guarding was maintained on a 24-hour schedule, even through 
severe winter nights. During one particularly bad blizzard all hands 
had to drop other assignments and make a powered snow shovel to clear 
paths to the outdoor boxes and aircraft. With it all some time was 
found to assist research workers using the collection for study purposes 
and to prepare some educational displays requested by the Air Force 
for recruiting purposes. 

ASSISTANCE TO OTHER AGENCIES 

The tangible evidence of aeronautical progress and histoi-y em- 
bodied in the collection, the extensive files maintained as auxiliai^- data 
for the material on display and in storage, and the expert knowledge 
of the staff are frequently called upon to be of service to government 
and industry and to students, engineers, authors, historians, and 
others. This is one of the most interesting phases of the work and 
pays a direct return to the nation for the maintenance of the collection. 

It is particularly gratifying when the possibility of accident can 
be forestalled. The Bell Supei-sonic airplane X-1 became a source 
for such service during the year. The National Advisory Connnittee 
for Aeronautics, the Navy, and Air Force are continuing to use similar 
aircraft for high-speed and extreme-altitude research. In July the 
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics was faced with the 
problem of determining the safety factor and life expectancy of the 
high-pressure nitrogen spheres in supersonic aircraft that were flying 
at Edwards Air Force Base on regular test hops. When NACA 



144 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

found that the only spheres available at that base for tests were in 
their operational airplanes they turned to the National Air Museum 
for assistance rather than ground their airplanes and interrupt their 
essential research. The Museum agreed to lend the spheres from 
the X-1. The test consisted of pressurizing the spheres to their maxi- 
mum of 1,500 p. s. i. and then reducing the pressure to zero, thus com- 
pleting one cycle. The spheres indicated failure at approximately 
1,800 cycles. It was found that NACA's airplane was very close to 
the safety factor established as a result of these tests ; therefore, their 
airplane was grounded for overhaul. At the close of the year ar- 
rangements had been made to reinstall the spheres in the Museum's 
Bell X-1. 

The Department of Justice, in connection with patent claims, has 
been investigating basic types of attacliments used in parachute gear 
and found interesting examples among the early parachutes in the 
collection. This Department was also assisted in looking up original 
types of engine mounts and shieldings. The technical-data office of 
the Bureau of Aeronautics was assisted in compiling records of 
trophies and awards, in which naval personnel were represented. 
The historical office of the Air Force was given assistance in setting 
up forms and methods for recording historic specimens, based on pro- 
cedures proven through the years in Museum practice. The Signal 
Corps was helped in tracing types of kites used to support radio 
antennae, and the Coast Guard consulted the Museum specimens and 
records to trace techniques used in air-borne human pick-up gear. 

Educational institutions that benefited from Air Museum assistance 
included local schools that were advised regarding their aeronautical 
curriculum. The University of Pittsburgh was helped in tracing 
details of the aerodynamic testing devices constructed and used by 
Prof. S. P. Langley, third Secretary of the Smithsonian, when he was 
at the Allegheny Observatory in 1886 before coming to this Institu- 
tion. The Jam Handy organization of Detroit, engaged in prepara- 
tion of training films and texts for the Navy and other users, turned 
to the Air Museum for help in compiling a history of helicopter de- 
velopment. The Musee de I'Air, Paris, France, through its distin- 
guished conservateur, Charles Dollfus, requested aid in improving its 
files on the XC-4, U. S. Navy flying boat, 1919, first to fly across the 
Atlantic ; and the EB-1, racing plane of advanced design entered in 
the Gordon Bennett Pace of 1920. It was a particular pleasure to 
assist Mr. Dollfus, in view of his many kindnesses to the National 
Air Museum. 

Assistance to industry has been in connection with filling in lost 
records of past accomplishments in a variety of instances. The con- 
tacts that are most gratifying are those in which the Museum recog- 
nizes the significance of some treasured object preserved from the 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 145 

days of the company's pioneer origin, and it is agreed to place it in 
the Museum where it can take its deserved place in the collection. 

Over 700 correspondence requests for information have been an- 
swered during the year and 256 photographs distributed. 

The committees upon which the head curator served during the 
year include the Brewer Trophy Committee for the National Aero- 
nautic Association which annually chooses an outstanding person 
who has contributed to youth education in aeronautics ; the National 
Science Fair board of judges, which selects deserving students to 
receive higher education in science; and the Kill Devil Hills Memorial 
Association Committee, which is planning to erect at Kitty Hawk, 
N. C, a museum to conunemorate those accomplishments of the Wright 
Brothers that were performed at that location. 

The head curator gave several lectures during the year on various 
phases of aeronautics, including kites, the air mail, development of 
airports, and different aspects of the history of aeronautics: and the 
associate curator, Robert Strobell, has conducted tours of the collec- 
tion for different groups, notably the international exchange group 
of flight cadets from 16 nations who were guests of the Civil Air 
Patrol. 

IMPROVEMENTS IN REFERENCE MATERIAL 

Great improvement in the reference material this year was accom- 
plished by the associate curator and two clerical assistants. This 
material includes the Air Museum's library of books and periodicals, 
the original correspondence and source records for specimens, exten- 
sive data on all phases of aeronautics in the form of scaled dimensioned 
drawings, illustrations, texts, catalogs, clippings, and excerpts from 
correspondence in which detailed information was received or given ; 
and the photograph file which is a numbered and cross-referenced 
collection of mounted prints for which negatives are maintained and 
from which prints can be supplied at cost. During the year this 
collection has increased substantially with particular emphasis upon 
aircraft of World War II. The process of indexing, captioning, and 
mounting was improved so that all material received durinir the year 
was indexed and filed, and the backlog reduced. Improvements were 
also made in the system of recording accessions and specimens. 

For several years the National Air Museum has been collecting pe- 
riodicals in an effort to establish a functional reference library. Indi- 
vidual collections received from the National Advisory Committee for 
Aeronautics, R. M. Kinderman, Scott Appleby, Smithsonian Institu- 
tion duplicate stacks, and other sources remained in storage imtil it 
was indicated that sufficient material was available to establish the 
periodical library. Further impetus was given to the project when 
it was learned that the Division of Aeronautics, Library of Congress, 



146 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 2 

was planning to dispose of its large collection of duplicate periodicals. 
Arrangements were made to screen these duplicates, select issues re- 
quired to fill gaps in the National Air Museum collection, and transfer 
the material to the Museum. Accordingly the first step was taken in 
March when the National Air Museum's collections were screened and 
cataloged so that the required issues could be selected from the Library 
of Congress. About 6,000 periodicals were selected. Early in May 
the integrating of all the collections was started, with an estimated 
18,000 periodicals on hand. Space was provided in the east room of 
the office suite. By the first week in June the periodicals had been 
placed in chronological order ready for reference use. This periodical 
library now consists of all the major aeronautical titles published in 
the United States and two titles published in England. While some 
volumes are incomplete, all years are covered by at least one title. 
The intention is to establish a ready reference library of major titles 
only. The periodicals are now being cataloged on cards which will 
serve the usual record purposes and in addition list shortages for in- 
tensified search to complete the volumes. 

Detailed drawings of the Wright Brothers' Kitty HoAJok aeroplane 
were prepared by the Musical Arts and Educational Foundation, Day- 
ton, Ohio, under the direction of L. P. Christman. 

Other additions to the reference files were received from W. B. Stout, 
who lent drawings of the famous Ford-Stout airliner of the 1930's; 
Ivan Jerome, who improved the file on helicopters; Maj. Kimbrough 
Browil, long a friend of the Museum w^ho, now in Europe, sent en- 
riching material on foreign aircraft and some rare books; Capt. 
Holden C. Richardson, U. S. N., who, under assignment from the 
Navy Department in the interests of the Museum, prepared data from 
which a model of the Navy 82-A seaplane could be constructed, this 
being the first plane designed by the Navy and Captain Richardson's 
original project in 1916. At the close of the fiscal year Captain Rich- 
ardson was preparing drawings and data on the NC-4. E. H. Heine- 
mann of Douglas Aircraft sent illustrations of Douglas types, 
performance charts, and other very informative drawings ; Fred Wise- 
man, of Berkeley, Calif., sent copies of contemporary accounts of his 
pioneer flight with air mail in 1911 ; R. W. Griswold II was very help- 
ful in improving the files on delta wing configurations; and Capt. 
Charles F. Blair supplied descriptions of his renowned flight over the 
North Pole, May 29, 1951. 

The following reference material, considered especially noteworthy, 
has been separately entered in an acknowledgment file : 

Warren M. Bodie and James J. Sloan, Aero Historical Society, Van Nuys, Calif. : 
A collection of 16 photographs and 7 negatives of racing aircraft and other 
significant types. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 147 

Warren M. Bodie and George R. Lawlor, Manhattan Beach, Calif. : A three-view 

dimensioned scale drawing of the Curtiss R-6 Army Racer, 1922, drawn by 

Mr. Lawlor. 
Vincent J. Burnelli, New York : A collection of 1,192 photographs pertinent to the 

Aeromarine Plane and Motor Corporation. 
Department of the Navy, Bureau of Aeronautics, Washington, D. C. ; A collection 

of 130 enlarged photographs covering naval aviation history from 1911 to 1951. 

RESEARCH 

The many requests for information received during each year require 
extensive research by the staff, while the preparation of displays 
entails extended study in order to prepare correct labels and present 
the material in its best and most complete form. In addition, the 
staff members, when other obligations permit, engage in separate 
research projects with a view to improving the collections and files. 
A study of biographical material on noted airmen of World War I 
has yielded interesting facts and exhibition material. The develop- 
ment of helicopters is a project undertaken in connection with the 
Aviation Industries Association and several manufacturers and has 
brought in significant specimens, photographs, and texts. Apprecia- 
tion is expressed to those authorities who have assisted with other 
research undertakings; these include Mrs. Esther C. Goddard, who 
personally checked labels to be exhibited with the rockets developed 
by her late husband; Burdette Wright, who supplied helpful refer- 
ences on the Curtiss P-40; and James Ray and his son, who gave 
information on autogiro theory and operation. 

ACCESSIONS 

This year the bureau received 110 specimens from 21 sources, com- 
prising 30 separate accessions. Those from Government departments 
are recorded as transfers ; others were received as gifts, except as noted. 
Each has been entered in the permanent records of the Museum and 
formally acknowledged. 

Air Force, Department of, Washington, D. C. : Nose and cockpit section of a 
Republic XP-84 TMnderjet complete with instruments and equipment showinj: 
the pilot's compartment of a type now in service in Korea (X.A.M. 737). 

American Helicopter Society, Bridg:eport, Conn. : The Alexander Klemin Award, 
a placque presented annually by the Society for notable achievement in rotary 
wing aeronautics (N.A.M. 732, loan). 

Bendix Aviation Corp., North Hollywood, Calif.: A "Gibson Girl" automatic 
radio transmitter with kite-supported antenna used in World War II for air- 
sea rescue (N.A.M. 749). 

Chrysler Motor Corp., Detroit, Mich. : A flying model airplane, built by Henry 
Struck, which, in a competitive sport contest at Alameda, Calif., July 20, 
1949, sponsored by the donors and sanctioned by the Academy of Model 
Aeronautics of the National Aeronautic Association, attained a speed of 
80.634 mph, surpassing the former Russian record (N.A.M. 726). 



148 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 2 

Consolidated Vultee Aibcbaft Corp., San Diego, Calif. : (Through Ernest Stout 
and with cooperation of the Department of the Navy.) A radio-controlled 
1 : 10-size free-flying model with which many important characteristics of the 
full-scale Convair XP5Y-1 flying boat prototype were determined (N.A.M. 
736). 

Cubtiss-Wkight Corp., Wood Ridge, N. J.: (Through George Page.) The orig- 
inal motorcycle made by Glenn H. Curtiss, 1906, and used as a test bed for 
his S-cyl. 4(>-hp Vee aircraft engine with which he established a world speed 
record of 137 mph January 24, 1907 (N.A.M. 734). (Through the Wright 
Aeronautical Division.) A collection of 17 exhibition scale models of airplanes 
produced by the Curtiss-Wright Corp., Airplane Division, during the period 
1928-44. Models vary in scale (N.A.M. 721). 

Douglas Aircraft CX)., Santa Monica, Calif. : An exhibition model, scale 1 : 16, 
of the Douglas Cloudster. One of the first designs produced by Donald Douglas 
and his associates, 1921 (N.A.M. 747). 

Educational and Musical Arts, Inc., Dayton, Ohio : Scale drawings, dimen- 
sioned and in detail, of the Wright Brothers' Kitty Hawk aeroplane of 1903, 
drawn by L. P. Christman, using as a basis the original aeroplane, the original 
drawing by the Wright Brothers, and notes made by and in the presence of 
Orville Wright (N.A.M. 738). 

Hoppi-CoPTEE, Inc., Seattle, Wash. : The prototype "Hoppi-Copter" designed in 
1945 by Edward Pentecost as a manually supported one-man helicopter (N.A.M. 
729). 

Hubbell, Chari,es H., Cleveland, Ohio : An exhibition model, scale 1 : 16, of the 
Wright Brothers' Tjioe EX aeroplane Vin Fiz in which C. P. Rodgers made 
the first transcontinental flight, 1911. The model made by Mr. Hubbell illus- 
trates the aeroplane as it appeared at the take-off, September 17 ; many repairs 
and replacements had altered its appearance when it completed the flight 84 
days later (N.A.M. 740, purchase). 

Lear, Inc., Grand Rapids, Mich. : The radio equipment and accessories for the 
automatic pilot installed in the P-51 airplane Excalihur-III in which Capt. 
C. F. Blair, Jr., flew from New York to London, thence to Bardufoss, Norway, 
across the North Pole to Fairbanks, Alaska, and on to New York, 1951 
(N.A.M. 745). 

National Advisory Committee foe Aeronautics, W^ashington, D. C. : Instruments 
used in the original trans-sonic flight of the Air Force Bell X-1, October 14, 

1947, comprising 4 telemetering instruments and 3 film-recording instruments 
(N.A.M. 727). A wind-tunnel model, scale 1 : 7, of the Naval Grumman fighter 
airplane, type XF7F-1 Tigercat, 1943, complete with supi)orts and mano- 
metering extensions, as used in the 8-ft. high-speed wind tunnel at Langley 
Field, Va., for research tests on the r7F series (N.A.M. 728). A free-flight 
sling-shot glider model of the Ludington-Griswold delta wing design, 1944, 
and the instrument panel from the German Lippisch delta wing aircraft, 1945 
(N.A.M. 730). 

National Aeronautic Association, Washington, D. C. : The Frank G. Brewer 
Trophy awarded annually, since 1943, for "the greatest achievement in the 
field of air youth education and training" (N.A.M. 733, loan). The Collier 
Trophy, awarded annually, since 1911, for "the greatest achievement in aero- 
nautics in America the value of which has been thoroughly demonstrated by 
actual use during the previous year" (N.A.M. 735, loan). (Through John 
Victory.) The Wright Brothers' Memorial Trophy awarded annually, since 

1948, for "significant public service of enduring value to aviation in the United 
States" (N.A.M. 739). 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 149 

National Cash Register Co., Dayton, Ohio: (Through Carl Beust.) A full- 
sized reproduction (5 ft. x 16 in.) of the Wright Brothers' wind tunnel, 1902, 
complete with balances, airfoils, and other test shapes, and with its 2-l)laded 
fan mounted on a grinder-head and supported on a wooden post as in their 
original installations (N.A.M. 741). 
Navy, Department of, Washington, D. C. : Original wind-tunnel model of a 
Sturtevant S-4 seaplane, 1916 (N.A.M. 723). A rocket engine, regeneratively 
cooled, designed by James H. Wyld, and tested, 1938 (N.A.M. 731). (Through 
the Office of Naval Research, Special Devices Center, Port Washington, L. I.) 
A General Electric 1-16, J-31 jet engine, cut-away example, 1,600 pounds static 
thrust, at 16,500 r. p. m., 1942 (N.A.M. 743). Two jet aircraft engines— a 
German Junkers Jumo 004, 1,980 pounds static thrust at about 8,700 r. p. m., 
1943, and an English DeHavilland GoUin, 3,000 pounds static thrust at 10,200 
r. p. m., 1943 ; both having parts sectioned and cut away to show construction 
and operation (N.A.M. 744). Seven reciprocating aircraft engines — a Wright 
Brothers' 4-cyl. upright 30-hp. at 1,200 r. p. m. of 1910; a Wright Brothers' 
60-cyl. upright 60-hp. at 1,400 r. p. m. of 1912; a Curtiss 6-cyl. upright 60-hp. 
at 1,500 r. p. m. of 1913 ; a Curtiss K-6, 6-cyl. upright 150-hp. at 1,700 r. p. m. of 
1918; a Gnat A. B. C. (English) 2-cyl. opposed, 45-hp. at 1,915 r. p. m. of 1919; 
a Ranger V-770-8, 8-cyl. inverted Vee, 520-hp. at 3,150 r. p. m. of 1941 ; and a 
Packard-Merlin (American version of English Rolls-Royce), V-1650-7, 12-cyl. 
Vee, 1,490-hp. at 3,000 r. p. m. of 1945 (N.A.M. 748) . 

Newcomb, Charles J., Baltimore, Md. : An oxhibition model, scale 1 : 16, of the 
Glenn L. Martin TT airplane, one of the lirst tractor designs ordered by the 
Aviation Section of the U. S. Signal Corps and the Navy, 1914. This was a 
2-place biplane powered with a Curtiss 80-hp engine and with a speed of 65 mph. 
It was described by Grover Loening, then Aeronautical Engineer for the Signal 
Corps, as the Army's "tirst really safe and satisfactory training airplane" 
(N.A.M. 725, purchase). 

Parker, William D., Bartlesville, Okla. : llie droppable landing gear, radio 
set, and loop antenna used by Wiley Post during his continental substratosphere 
flights in the Winnie Mae, 1935 (N.A.M. 746). 

Pratt Sc Whitney Aircraft Division, United Aircraft, East Hartford, Conn., 
with assistance of Harvey Lippincott : Engine accessories embodying signifi- 
cant developments of the World War II period, comprising 7 carburetors, 3 
automatic engine controls, and 7 other accessories, cut away to show con- 
struction (N.A.M. 742). 

Stout, William B., Phoenix, Ariz., with cooperation of the University of Detroit : 
The Stout Sky Car, a 2-place high-wing monoplane, all-metal construction, 
with pusher engine, designed as a general-purpose sport plane, 1931 (N.A.M. 
750). 

Topping, E. W., of Topping Models, Akron, Ohio; Exhibition model, scale 1:48, 
of the Glenn L. Martin Co. P4M-1 Mercator, long-range patrol airplane, 1949 
(N.A.M. 724). 

Valley Frocks, Inc., Lancaster, Pa. : A selected collection of parachutes, para- 
chute parts, and other aeronautical gear dating from 1918 to 1942 (N.A.M. 722). 

Respectfully submitted. 

Paul E. Garber, Head Curator. 
Dr. A. Wetmore, 

Secretary^ Smithsoniaai Institution. 



APPENDIX 10 
Report on the Canal Zone Biological Area 

Sir : It gives me pleasure to present herewith the annual report of 
the Canal Zone Biological Area for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1952. 

BUILDINGS AND EQUIPMENT 

Construction of the new 2-story laboratory begun last year was 
completed. The entire ground floor is now of reinforced concrete, 
extending 5 feet beyond the building on all four sides. The ground 
under the concrete was treated with sodium arsenite, as a protection 
against termites ; all four sides were w^alled in with terra-cotta blocks 
faced with cement; and the building was surrounded by a concrete 
ditch. The lower windows are in aluminum frames, and all windows 
are provided with plastic screens. A photographic dark room, 15 x 11 
feet, is included. Two laboratory rooms, 15 x 23 feet, were built, each 
to accommodate two to four scientists. These rooms will be provided 
with beds and dressers, and it is hoped to install dry closets in each. 
Funds to install sinks, work tables, and shelves will need to be supplied 
later. 

The ground behind the building was leveled and a pit dug for an 
additional concrete water tank to store the runoff from the roof of the 
building. Since this reservoir is urgently needed, it is hoped that 
it can be completed during the next fiscal year. 

The ground floor of the zinc-meta-arsenite building, just below the 
main laboratory building, was covered with reinforced concrete and 
will be available for laboratory use. The building has two rooms, 
each with a separate entrance, which will comfortably accommodate 
two persons in each room. The lower floor of the main laboratory 
has been cleared of miscellaneous storage material, and this has 
about doubled the available working space for scientists. 

The library and herbarium now in the Haskins building are being 
transferred to rooms on the upper floor of the new building. When 
this change is completed, the kitchen equipment will be moved into 
the larger, fireproof Haskins building. The toilets and showers, 
now in the main laboratory building, will then be moved into the 
old kitchen building. 

The large main building, which accommodates six persons, is in 
satisfactory general condition but will soon need repairs to screening 

150 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 151 

and the addition of a dry storage room. To reduce the fire risk, the 
attic is no longer used for dicing purposes. 

The resident manager's house and the building used for the East- 
man Kodak Co.'s research on deterioration and corrosion are both in 
good shape. The Barbour cottage, which can accommodate two to 
four persons, is in good repair. The old Chapman building is serv- 
iceable but not in too good condition; with some repairs it can last 
about two years more. It accommodates four persons, and all the 
ground floor is used for laboratory purposes. 

The building now occupied by the caretaker and the dormitory 
for the cook are in good shape ; but the dormitory for the laborers 
needs repairs. 

The trail-end houses on Barbour Point and Burrunga Point now 
are usable only as temporary shelters from rain. The treated-wood 
house at the end of the Drayton Trail and the Z-M-A house (P'uertes 
House) are in good condition. The shelter at the end of Zetek Trail 
is in fairly good condition but needs some repairs. 

The old generators for light and power are no longer in shape to 
operate, except one 5 KVA, and that one is far from satisfactory. 
The new 15 KVA Diesel-driven generators, now on order, should 
give satisfactory service for at least 10 years. 

The floating equipment is in good condition. 

MOST URGENT NEEDS 

The most pressing need is for a concrete platform building at the 
dock to house the two new generators soon to arrive and the Diesel- 
oil storage tank, with loading and unloading equipment at Frijoles. 
Next in order is the concrete water-storage tank behind the new 
building. 

There is a real need for suitable dry closets ; these should be made 
during the coming fiscal year. Reducing the humidity to control 
corrosion and deterioration cannot always be accomplished by heat. 
In some cases the use of dehumidifiers is preferable, especially in 
the photographic darkroom and where chemicals are to be stored. 

In the new building, sinks, shelves, and closets should be installed. 

SCIENTISTS AND THEIR STUDIES 

The principal purpose of the Canal Zone Biological Area is to 
provide a safe tropical environment for research. In view of the far- 
flung interests of our nation, it is of vital importance that problems 
related to tropical conditions be solved in advance of the need for 
information on those conditions in defense operations. Work of this 
character is done by many scientists from univei-sities and institutions, 

226984—52 11 



152 



ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 



and at no expense to the Government. This research should receive 
every encouragement. 

During the 1952 fiscal year, 48 scientists were on the island. The 
high cost of transportation to the Canal Zone still keeps many from 
coming, and some of those who do come cannot spend as much time 
on the island as they would like. A list of the season's investigators, 
with a brief summary of their researches, follows : 



Investigator 

Atwater, Mr. and Mrs. R. M., executive secretary, 
American Public Health Association. 

Beale, Dr. James A., in charge of division of forest 
insect investigations, U. S. Bureau of Ento- 
mology and Plant Quarantine. 

Blair, J. P., New York Zoological Society. 

Bourliere, Dr. F., professor of medicine. Faculty 
de Medecine, Rue Huysmans, Paris. 

Brunn, Dr. Anton H., director of oceanographic 
exploration, Danish Deep Sea Expedition 
(1950-52). 

Bull, John L., Jr., secretary, Linnaean Society of 
New York. 

Cherbonnier, Mr. and Mrs. E. C, member of advis- 
ory council. Agricultural Research Administra- 
tion, St. Louis. 

Dickinson, Sam, artist, University of Kansas, 
Lawrence, Kans. 



Dunn, Dr. and Mrs. Emmett R., professor 
zoology, Haverford College, Haverford, Pa. 
Eisenmann, Dr. Eugene, New York, N. Y. 



of 



Ellis, Dr. Hazel R., head of biology department, 
Keuka College, Keuka Park, N. Y. 

Fairchild, Dr. Graham B., staff entomologist, Gor- 
gas Memorial Laboratory, Panama City. 

Hall, Dr. E. Raymond, professor of zoology. Uni- 
versity of Kansas, Lawrence, Kans. 

Ingles, Dr. and Mrs. Lloyd C, professor of zoology, 
Fresno State College, Fresno, Calif. 



Jackson, Dr. William, Johns Hopkins University, 
Baltimore, Md. 

Johnson, Hon. and Mrs. Leroy, Member of Con- 
gress from California. 

Kelly, Mrs. Junea W., president, northern di- 
vision. Cooper Ornithological Club, Alameda, 
Calif. 



Principal interest or 
special study 
Inspection of facilities for 

scientists. 
Inspection of termite tests. 



Study of tropical environ- 
ment. 

Ecology of mammals, particu- 
larly primates. 

General observation. 



Birds and insects. 



Mammals and birds. 



Collection and preparation of 
material for tropical-habi- 
tat museum group. 

Reptiles and amphibians. 

Birds ; published first com- 
plete annotated list of birds 
of island during year. 

Bird behavior ; fruit crow ; 

general biology. 
Photography of tropical en- 
vironment. 

Collection and preparation of 
material for tropical- 
habitat museum group. 

General zoology ; photo- 
graphic record ; made first 
record of 5-toed armadillo 
{Cahassous centralis) on 
the island. 

Ecology of ants. 

Conservation. 
Birds. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 



153 



Investigator 

Kerr, Charlotte, training, health and sanitation 
division, Institute of Inter-American Affairs. 

Laughlin, Robert M., student, Princeton Univer- 
sity, Princeton, N. J. 

Logan, Eiwood, photographer, American Museum 
of Natural History. 

Long, Mrs. Roberta, Alameda, Calif. 

Lundy, William E., assistant paymaster, Panama 
Canal Co., Balboa Heights, C. Z. 

Martin, Dr. George W., professor of botany, State 
University of Iowa, lo-wa. City. 

Mausteller, Dr. John E., professor of forestry, 
Michigan State College, Lansing, Mich. 

Mielche, Hakon, author, Danish Deep Sea Expe- 
dition (1950-52). 

Milne, Dr. Lorus J., professor of zoology. Uni- 
versity of New Hampshire, Durham, N. H. 

Milne, Dr. Margery, assistant professor of zoology, 
University of New Hampshire. 

Milotte, Mr. and Mrs. Alfred, Walt Disney Pro- 
ductions, Burbank, Calif. 

Morris, Robert C, entomologist, U. S. Bureau of 
Entomology and Plant Quarantine. 

Nelson, Mrs. Edith, Alameda, Calif. 

Perrygo, Watson M., exhibits preparator, Smith- 
sonian Institution. 

Rettenmeyer, Carl, student, Swarthmore College, 
Swarthmore, Pa. 

Schneirla, Dr. T. C., curator, department of ani- 
mal behavior, American Museum of Natural 
History. 

Schnitzer, Mr. and Mrs. Albert, Elizabeth, N. J. 

Schultz, Mrs. Marguerite M., botanist. University 
of Kansas, Lawrence, Kans. 

Soper, Dr. Cleveland C, director. Tropical Re- 
search Laboratory, Eastman Kodak Co., Pa- 
nama City. 

Therrien, H. P., Miami, Fla. 

Vowles, Dr. David M., Fulbright exchange profes- 
sor. Tufts College, Medford, Mass. 

Walker, Hastings H., M. D., Leahi Hospital, 
Hawaii. 

Welden, Arthur L., graduate student, State Uni- 
versity of Iowa, Iowa City. 

Wetmore, Dr. Alexander, Secretary, Smithsonian 
Institution. 

Young, George, taxidermist. University of Kansas, 
Lawrence, Kans. 



Principal interest or 
special study 

Observation of tropical en- 
vironment. 
Birds, mammals, and moths. 

Army ants ; photographic 

record. 
Birds. 
Birds, mammals, and insects. 

Fungi. 

Humid tropical environment. 

General observation. 

General zoology, especially 
invertebrates. 

Invertebrates ; photographic 
record. 

Photography of tropical en- 
vironment. 

Investigation of termite 
control. 

Birds. 

Birds. 

Behavior of army ants. 
Behavior of army ants. 



Birds and mammals. 

Collection and preparation of 
material for tropical-habi- 
tat museum group. 

Deterioration and corrosion 
tests of photographic equip- 
ment and supplies; advice 
on operation of plant. 

General observation ; photog- 
raphy. 

Mon^hology of ants as rela- 
ted to behavior. 

Observation of tropical en- 
vironment. 

Fungi. 

Birds ; inspection of plant. 

Collection and proparatimi of 
material for tropical-habi- 
tat museum group. 



154 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

VISITORS 

In addition to the scientists, 602 other visitors came to the island 
during the year. Among these were Paul A. Blanquet, chief engineer 
of the Suez Canal ; Dr. David Potter, of Clark University, Worcester, 
Mass.; Dr. and Mrs. E. H. Kennard, of Washington, D. C; J. R. 
Eisenmann and Mr. Woodin, of Pittsburgh, Pa. ; Dr. Frank E. Maz- 
land, Jr., of Carlisle, Pa.; Elton E. Hooser, of the U. S. Bureau of 
Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Washington, D. C. ; several Boy 
Scout troops, including the Explorers' Post; and several groups of 
Girl Scouts. For these Scout groups the visits were educational in 
nature. 

There were also members of the Liceo of Panama, several groups 
from LaSalle College, members of the Junior College of the Canal 
Zone, under the leadership of Prof. George E. Lee, members of the 
Servicio Geografico del Ejercito de Brasil and the 370th Engineer 
Amphibious Support Regiment, the Diablo Heights and Balboa High 
School Camera Clubs, members of the Institute of Inter- American 
Affairs, the Inter- American Geodetic Survey, the Air Corps School, 
and officials of the Canal Zone Government, the Panama Canal Com- 
pany, and the Panama Embassy. 

ADDITIONS TO THE LIST OF VERTEBRATES 

The following vertebrates were added to the list published in the 
1950 report: 

Mammalia : 

Desmodus rotundatus murinus (vampire bat). 

Cabassous centralis (5-toe(i armadillo). 
Reptiija: 

Liotyphlops aVbirostris. 

Ninia maculata. 

Trimetopon tarhouri, 

Pscudoboa neuwiedii. 
Amphibia : 

Hyla venulosa. 

These 7 species, with the 173 given in the list previously published, 
and the 306 kinds of birds, make a total of 486 vertebrates known from 
the island. 

DONATIONS 

The resident manager donated to the library a set, complete to 
dat^ with index volume, of the 26 volumes of Biological Abstracts, a 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 155 

set of the Journal of Parasitology, and a long series of complete 
bound volumes of the Experiment Station Record ; also considerable 
laboratory glassware. 

RAINFALL 

In 1951, rains of 0.01 inch or more fell on 48 days (154 hours) 
during the dry season (January to April), and on 194 days (7G4 
hours) during the wet season (8 months) ; a total for the year of 
242 days, 918 hours. Kainfall was 5.44 inches above the 27-year 
average. During the dry season the excess amounted to 7.5G inclies, 
and during the wet season there was a deficiency of 2.12 inches. Five 
of the eight wet-season months registered deficiencies, amounting to 
a total of 11.24 inches. October was the wettest month, with 19.43 
inches (27 days, 128 hours). March was the driest month, with 0.30 
inch (4 days, 11 hours). A new 1-hour record was established on 
October 12, 4.11 inches. The previous high was 3.68 inches. 

Table 1. — Annual rainfall, Barro Colorado Island, C. Z. 

Total Station 

Year inches average 

1925 104.37 

1926 118.22 113.56 

1927 116.36 114.68 

1928 101.52 111.35 

1929 87.84 106.56 

1930 76.57 101.51 

1931 123.30 104.69 

1932 113.52 105.76 

1933 101.73 105.32 

1934 122. 42 107. 04 

1935 143.42 110.35 

1936 93.88 108.98 

1937 124. 13 110. 12 

1938 117.09 110.62 

1939 115.47 110.94 

1940 86.51 109.43 

1941 91.82 108.41 

1942 111.10 108.55 

1943 120.29 109.20 

1944 111.96 109.30 

1945 120.42 109.84 

1946 87.38 108.81 

1947 77.92 107.49 

1948 83.16 106.43 

1949 114.86 106.76 

1950 114.51 107.07 

1951 112.72 107.28 



156 



ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN mSTITUTION, 195 2 



Table 2. — Comparison of 1950 and 1951 rainfall, Barro Colorado Island, C. Z. 

(inches) 



Month 



January. -- 
February.. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 

October 

November. 
December - 

Year. 

Dry season 
Wet season 



Total 



1950 



0.20 

1.87 

0.48 

2.73 

7.86 

14.66 

12.37 

11.48 

7.20 

14.02 

24.19 

17.45 



114. 51 



5.28 
109.23 



1951 



2.21 

3.76 

0.30 

8.53 

12.19 

10.94 

5.37 

11.29 

9.62 

19.43 

16.15 

12.93 



112. 72 



Station 
average 



1.75 

1.30 

1.24 

2.95 

10.83 

11.39 

11.47 

12.27 

10.02 

13.39 

19.46 

11.21 



Years of 
record 



107.28 



14.80 
97.92 



7.24 
100.28 



Excess or 
deficiency 



26 
26 
26 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 



Accumu- 
lated ex- 
cess or 
deficiency 



-H).46 
+2.46 
-0.94 
+5.68 
+1.36 
-0.45 
-6.10 
-0.98 
-0.40 
+6.04 
-3.31 
+1.72 



-fO.46 
+2.92 
+1.98 
+7.56 
+8.92 
+8.47 
+2.37 
+1.39 
+0.99 
+7.03 
+3.72 
+6.44 



+5.44 



+7.56 
-2.12 



The maximum yearly rainfall of record on the island was 143.42 
inches, and the minimum was 76.57 inches. For short periods the 
following were the maximums : 5 minutes, 0.85 inch ; 10 minutes, 1.40 
inches; 1 hour, 4.11 inches; 2 hours, 4.81 inches; 24 hours, 10.48 inches. 

FISCAL REPORT 

During the fiscal year 1952, $11,558.12 in trust funds was available. 
This sum included a balance of $226 from 1951 and $3,000 contributed 
by the Smithsonian Institution from its private funds. Of this 
amount $11,294.09 was spent, leaving a balance of $264.03. 

The following items are paid out of trust funds: Food, wages, 
freight and express, office expenses, and miscellaneous expenses such 
as parts for the automobile, kitchen equipment, and general upkeep. 
This year food represented 41.8 percent of the total expended, and 
wages, 53.8 percent. 

The Smithsonian Institution allotted $16,646.96 from Government- 
appropriated funds, of which $16,600.38 was expended. Of this 
amount $7,580 was for two new 15-KVA Diesel-driven generators, and 
$4,217.78 for contracts to complete the lower floor of the new building 
erected this year. Approximately $1,850 from allotted funds was used 
for the purchase and transportation from Frijoles to the island of 
gravel, sand, cement, and reinforcing steel for the completion of this 
lower floor. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 157 

During the year fees from scientists totaled $3,722, more than four 
times as much as the amount received for the fiscal year 1951. Visitors' 
fees amounted to $1,503. Reimbursements for supplies furnished 
amounted to $756.72. 

The rates for scientists and visitors have not been raised since the 
laboratory started in 1923, despite the rising costs of food, wages, ma- 
terials, and services; but increased costs have reached the point where 
the laboratory is now reluctantly forced to increase its rates. The 
new rates now in effect are $3 per person for 1-day visitors, $4 a full 
day for scientists from institutions that support the laboratory 
through table subscriptions, and 85 a full day for all others. A 1-day 
visit includes the use of the launch to and from the island, the noon 
meal, and the guide in the morning. A full day for scientists in- 
cludes three meals and lodging. 

The following institutions continued their support to the laboratory 
through the payment of table subscriptions : 

Eastman Kodak Co $1,000 

New York Zoological Society 300 

American Museum of Narural History 300 

Smithsonian Institution 300 

It is most gratifying to again record donations from Dr. Eugene 
Eisenmann of Xew York and E. C. Cherbonnier of St, Louis. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Thanks are due to the Canal Zone Goverimient for its whole-hearted 
cooperation: to the Panama Canal Company, especially Alton P. 
^Vhite, chief of the Dredging Division, and J. A. Driscoll, assistant 
chief, for their technical help, and the Commissary Division for its 
efficient services; to Maj. George Herman, Chief of Police, and the 
officers under him: and to officials and employees of the Panama Rail- 
road for their able assistance. 

Respectfully submitted. 

James Zetek, Resident Manager. 

Dr. A. "Wetmore, 

Secretary^ Smithsonian Institution. 



APPENDIX 11 

Report on the Library 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the activities 
of the Smithsonian Library for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1952. 

Probably not since 1866, when the Smithsonian Deposit in the 
Library of Congress was established by Act of Congress, has there 
been an event in the history of the Smithsonian Library more epoch- 
marking than the transfer, after more than a hundred years, of the 
librarian's office from the Smithsonian Building to the Natural His- 
tory Building and the dismantling of the old office library reference 
room, in order to effect a consolidation of all major library functions 
of the Institution. The National Museum Library, as a separate 
branch, was merged with the Smithsonian Library, and its staff, func- 
tions, and equipment were consolidated with the units of the Smith- 
sonian Library. The consolidated library will hereafter be known 
as the Smithsonian Library. The position of assistant librarian in 
charge of the National Museum Library was changed to that of chief 
of the reference and circulation section of the Smithsonian Library. 
The change became effective on November 2, 1951. 

The Museima Library had long been the largest of the Institution's 
branch libraries, with the most comprehensive subject coverage in its 
basic reference collections. Its reference services had never been 
limited to the curatorial staff of the Museum but were given to the 
whole Institution, and interlibrary loans were handled by its loan 
desk. Its physical separation from the administrative offices of the 
library in the Smithsonian Building resulted in a considerable and 
increasing amount of duplication of cataloging and other record keep- 
ing and of the acquisition of reference books. It is hoped that the 
present centralization of staff, functions, records, and materials will 
result in better and more economical library service to the whole 
Institution. 

The change in quarters affected the work of the acquisitions section 
somewhat less than that of the other sections. It had an exceptionally 
busy year. Its records show the receipt of 60,512 publications, most 
of which came either by mail or through the International Exchange 
Service from 92 different foreign countries, dominions, colonies, and 
protectorates, as well as from all the States of the Union. The library 
continues to owe the largest part of this wide coverage of the special 

158 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 159 

literature needed by the scientific and curatorial staff of the Institu- 
tion to the cordial exchange relations maintained with scientific and 
other cultural institutions throughout the world. These relations 
are continually being extended, and there were 531 new exchanges 
arranged during the year, while 7,899 different publications were 
received in response to 497 special requests for volumes or parts of 
serial publications needed to fill gaps in our collections. 

Acquisitions by purchase included 1,278 books and 332 subscriptions 
for foreign and domestic serial publications not obtainable by ex- 
change. Most of the books bought were recent publications, but a 
few of the many out-of-print works still much needed were purchased 
as they came into the market. It is highly desirable to be able to buy 
the most needed of these old books when copies are advertised for sale, 
but many of them are prohibitively expensive for a small budget, when 
they are available at all. 

As always, friends of the Institution made many generous gifts to 
the library. Especially noteworthy among the larger donations was 
a selection of more than a thousand volumes from the library of the 
late Gen. John J. Pershing, presented by his son, Francis W. Pershing, 
especially for the use of the division of military history in the National 
Museum. 

The library is deeply indebtedly to many members of the Smith- 
sonian staff for their generosity and thoughtfulness in giving the 
library copies of their own publications and other books and papers. 
Stamp collectors everywhere will, directly or indirectly, have reason 
to be especially grateful to Franklin R. Bruns, Jr., for the more than 
1,500 publications on stamps he has donated from his own library to 
the sectional library in the division of philately. Many other gifts 
to the sectional library were obtained through his good offices. 

Of the grand total of 22,774 publications transferred to the Library 
of Congress during the year, 5,573 were books and serial publications 
individually stamped and recorded as additions to the Smithsonian 
Deposit. Others were 2,481 doctoral dissertations from European 
universities, and 14,720 foreign and domestic documents, and many 
miscellaneous publications on subjects not immediately pertinent to 
the work of the Institution. 

Of the 3,216 publications transferred to the Army Medical Library, 
581 were medical dissertations. To other government libraries were 
sent 425 publications on subjects in their special fields of interest. 

There were one or two fairly large and a number of small with- 
drawals from the library's huge collection of duplicates, but the collec- 
tion continued to grow. The 11,420 pieces selected and sent to the 
United States Book Exchange, for exchange credit, made no noticeable 
impression on it. The collection needs the exclusive time and atten- 
tion of a small staff of its own, working under the direction of the 



160 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

chief of the acquisitions section, to keep it in order and to make the best 
possible use of it for exchange purposes. 

In the catalog section, the merging of the separate catalogs of 
the Museum books and serials with the central catalog and serial 
records of the Institution was begun immediately and has gone for- 
ward as fast as circumstances would permit. There is an enormous 
amount of work to be done in such an enterprise where more than a 
million cards must be handled with scrupulous accuracy in unifying 
entries and eliminating unnecessary duplication. Under the most 
favorable conditions it will take a long time to complete it, but when 
it is finished the Institution will have the most complete record it 
has ever had of the library's collections and, it is hoped, the most 
effective aid to their use. 

In addition to the work of reorganization in the catalog section, 
6,779 publications were cataloged, 20,175 parts of serial publications 
were entered, and 30,488 cards were added to catalogs and shelflists. 

The work of the reference and circulation section is most difficult 
to measure and evaluate statistically because figures are very imper- 
fect indices of the many indeterminate variables involved in reference 
services to the staff and bringing together the books and their users. 
However, statistics show that 11,730 publications were borrowed for 
use outside the library, exclusive of 7,314 books and periodicals as- 
signed to sectional libraries for filing which are circulated within the 
divisions to which they are assigned. Interlibrary loans of 1,231 
publications were made to 99 different Government, university, and 
other institutional libraries throughout the country. For use within 
the Institution, the library borrowed 1,357 publications from the 
Library of Congress, many of which were Smithsonian Deposit copies, 
and 405 publications were borrowed from other libraries. 

More than 16.000 reference questions were answered in response 
to letters and telephone calls and to inquirers who came to the library 
in person. 

Funds allotted for binding permitted only 623 volumes, mostly 
currently completed volumes of periodicals, to be prepared and sent 
to the Government Printing Office, but 1,563 old books were repaired 
in the library. The library is in no sense a museum of fine books, 
but it nevertheless has many valuable volumes, and not a few irre- 
placeable ones in its working reference collections that are actually 
collector's items. How to give them the proper housing and the 
continuous care that they ought to have to maintain them in good 
condition is one of the library's most serious problems. 

The principal need of the library continues to be more and better- 
arranged space, with adequate provision for growth. It also needs 
a staff of competent librarians commensurate in size with the require- 
ments of the Institution for library service. It needs more funds for 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 



161 



books and especially for binding. Many of the physical and organ- 
izational changes inaugurated during the year were good, considered 
as initial steps in long-range planning, but plans can only be brought 
to fruition if they are firmly and continuously supported by the means 
to carry them out. 



SUMMARIZED STATISTICS 

ACCESSIONS 



Smithsonian Deposit at the Library of Congress 

Smithsonian library (includes former oflSce and 

Museum branches) 

Astrophysical Observatory (includes Radiation 

and Organisms) 

Bureau of American Ethnology 

National Air Museum 

National Collection of Fine Arts 

National Zoological Park 

Total 



Volumes 


Total recorded 
volumes, 1952 


738 


584, 213 


4,026 


287, 645 


219 


14, 040 


107 


35, 068 


78 


288 


230 


12, 685 


5 


4,204 


5,403 


938, 143 



Neither incomplete volumes of serial publications nor separates 
and reprints from serial publications are included in these figures. 

EXCHANGES 

New exchanges arranged 531 

152 of these were for the Smithsonian Deposit. 

Specially requested publications received 7,899 

1,137 of these were obtained to fill gaps in Smithsonian Deposit sets. 

CATALOGING 

Volumes and pamphlets cataloged 5,779 

Cards added to catalogs and shelflists 30,488 

PERIODICALS 

Periodical parts entered 20,175 

CIRCULATION 

Loans of books and i)eriodicals 11,730 

Circulation of books and periodicals in sectional libraries is not 
counted except in the division of insects. 

BINDING 

Volumes sent to the bindery 623 

Volumes repaired in the library 1,563 

Eespectfully submitted. 

Leila F. Clark, Librarian, 

Dr. A. Wetmore, 

Secretary^ Smithsonian Institution 



APPENDIX 12 

Report on Publications 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the publi- 
cations of the Smithsonian Institution and its branches for the year 
ended June 30, 1952 : 

The Institution published during the year 18 papers in the Smith- 
sonian Miscellaneous Collections, 1 Annual Report of the Board of 
Regents and pamphlet copies of 19 articles in the Report appendix, 
1 Annual Report of the Secretary, and 2 special publications. 

The United States National Museum issued 1 Annual Report, 24 
Proceedings papers, 1 Bulletin, and 1 paper in the series Contributions 
from the United States National Herbarium. 

The Bureau of American Ethnology issued 1 Annual Report, 4 
Bulletins, and 1 paper in the series Publications of the Institute of 
Social Anthropology. - 

The National Collection of Fine Arts issued 1 publication ; and the 
Freer Gallery of Art published title page and table of contents of 
1 volume in the Occasional Papers series. 

The final number of Ars Islamica (comprising volumes XV-XVI) 
was issued in August 1951. This journal, published by the University 
of Michigan under the editorship of Dr. Richard Ettinghausen, of the 
Freer Gallery of Art, was seen through the press by the editorial staff 
of the Smithsonian Institution. Future numbers, to be known as 
Ars Orient alls, will be published jointly under the imprint of the 
University of Michigan and the Smithsonian Institution. 

At the end of the year galley proof of the ninth revised edition of the 
Physical tables was beginning to come in. 

Of the publications there were distributed 144,166 copies, which 
included 32 volumes and separates of Smithsonian Contributions to 
Knowledge, 34,691 volumes and separates of Smithsonian Miscellane- 
ous Collections, 25,863 volumes and separates of Smithsonian Annual 
Reports, 2,350 War Background Studies, 2,238 Smithsonian special 
publications, 5 reports and 262 sets of pictures of the Harriman Alaska 
Expedition, 52,653 volumes and separates of National Museum publi- 
cations, 17,964 publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 
3,541 publications of the Institute of Social Anthropology, 1,140 cata- 
logs of the National Collection of Fine Arts, 596 volumes and pam- 
phlets of the Freer Gallery of Art, 13 Annals of the Astrophysical 

162 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 163 

Observatory, 2,182 reports of the American Historical Association, 
and 636 miscellaneous publications not published by the Smithsonian 
Institution (mostly Survival Manuals). 

In addition, 33,471 picture pamphlets, 89,385 guide books, 67,591 
natural-history, Smithsonian buildings, and art postcards, 30,334 sets 
of photo cards and picture postcards, 25 sets and 12 prints of North 
American Wild Flowers, and 9 volumes of Pitcher Plants were 
distributed. 

SMITHSONIAN PUBLICATIONS 

SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 
VOLUME 11-1 

Smithsonian Meteorological Tables. Sixth revised edition. Compiled by Robert 
J. List. Whole volume, xi+527 pp. (Publ. 4014.) [Oct. 10] 1951. 

VOLUME 115 

Biological investigations in Mexico, by Edward Alphonso Goldman, Whole vol- 
ume. xiii+476 pp., 71 pis., 1 fig. (Publ. 4017.) July 31, 1951. 

VOLUME 116 

No. 3. Two runic stones, from Greenland and Minnesota, by William Thalbitzer. 
71pp., 7 figs. (Publ. 4021.) Aug. 30, 1951. 

No. 5. Bliddle Cambrian stratigraphy and faunas of the Canadian liocky Moun- 
tains, by Franco Rasetti. 277 pp., 34 pis., 5 figs. (Publ. 4046.) Sept. 18, 1951. 

No. 7. The butterflies of Virginia, by Austin H. Clark and Leila F. Clark. 230 
pp., 31 pis., 1 fig. (Publ. 4050.) Dec. 20, 1951. 

Title page and table of contents. (Publ. 4061.) [Feb. 4] 1952. 

VOLUME 117 

No. 1. North American fireflies of the genus PJwturis, by Herbert Spencer Barber. 

With preface and notes by Frank A. McDermott. 58 pp., 3 figs. (Publ. 4051.) 

Nov. 27, 1951. 
No. 2. Additional forms of birds from Colombia and Panamfi, by Alexander Wet- 
more. 11 pp. (Publ. 4052.) Sept. 25, 1951. 
No. 3. Relationships of certain genera of fungus gnats of the family Mycetophili- 

dae, by F. R. Shaw and M. M. Shaw. 23 pp., 45 figs. (Publ. 4053.) Dec. 27, 

1951. 
No. 4. A revised classification for the birds of the world, by Alexander Wetmore. 

22 pp. (Publ. 4057.) Nov. 1, 1951. 
No. 5. Annotated list of birds of Barro Colorado Island, Panama Canal Zone, by 

Eugene Eisenmann. 62 pp. (Publ. 4058.) Feb. 7, 1952. 
No. 6. The scaphopod moUusks collected by the First Johnson-Smithsonian Deep- 

Sea expedition to the Puerto Rican Deep, by William K. Emerson. 14 pp., 1 

pi. (Publ. 4059.) Feb. 26, 1952. 
No. 7. Host relationships of moths of the genera Deprcssaria and Agonoptcrix, 

with descriptions of new species, by J. F, Gates Clarke. 20 pp., 6 pis. (Publ. 

4083.) Apr. 23, 1952. 
No. 8. The sand crab Emerita talpoida (Say) and some of its relatives, by R. E. 

Snodgrass. 34 pp., 11 figs. (Publ. 4086.) Apr. 15, 1952. 



164 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

No. 9. Precipitation and temperature in Washington, D. C, for 1951 and 1952, 

by C. G. Abbot. 5 pp., 2 ligs. (Publ. 4087.) Mar. 18, 1952. 
No. 10. Periodicities in the solar-constant measures, by C. G. Abbot. 31 pp., 

6 figs. (Publ. 4088.) May 28, 1952. 
No. 11. Important interferences with normals in weather records, associated with 

sunspot frequency, by C. G. Abbot. 3 pp., 1 fig. (Publ. 4090.) May 20, 1952. 

VOLUME 118 

Smithsonian Logarithmic Tables (to base e and base 10), by George Wellington 
Spenceley, Rheba Murray Spenceley, and Eugene Rhodes Epperson. Whole 
volume. xii+402pp. (Publ. 4054.) [Mar. 26] 1952. 

ANNUAL REPORTS 

Report for 1950. — The complete volume of the Annual Report of the 
Board of Regents for 1950 was received from the printer on October 
15, 1951 : 

Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution showing 
the operations, expenditures, and condition of the Institution for the year 
ended June 30, 1950. ix+522 pp., 84 pis., 47 figs. (Publ. 4025.) 

The general appendix contained the following papers (Pubis. 4026- 
4044): 

Beyond the Milky Way, by Thornton Page. 

The luminous surface and atmosphere of the sun, by Bertil Lindblad. 

What is an elementary particle? by E. Schrodinger. 

The composition of our universe, by Harrison Brown. 

The Wright Brothers as aeronautical engineers, by M. P. Baker. 

Chemical achievement and hoi)e for the future, by Linus C. Pauling. 

Electroencephalography, by W. Grey Walter. 

Energy from fossil fuels, by M. King Hubbert. 

Permafrost, by Robert F. Black. 

Earthquakes in North America, by B. Gutenberg. 

Wolf Creek meteorite crater. Western Australia, by D. J. Guppy and R. S. 

Matheson. 
Natural history in Iceland, by Julian Huxley. 
Praying mantids of the United States, native and introduced, by Ashley B. 

Gurney. 
Man's disorder of nature's design in the Great Plains, by F. W. Albertson. 
Food shortages and the sea, by Daniel Merriman. 
Economic uses of lichens, by George A. Llano. 
The origin and antiquity of the Eskimo, by Henry B. Collins. 
Archeology and ecology on the Arctic slope of Alaska, by Ralph S. Solecki. 
Samuel Seymour : Pioneer artist of the Plains and the Rockies, by John Francis 

McDermott. 

Report for 1961. — The Report of the Secretary, which will form 
part of the Annual Report of the Board of Regents to Congress, was 
issued January 18, 1952 : 

Report of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution and financial report of 
the executive committee of the Board of Regents for the year ended June 30, 
1951. ix+160 pp., 4 pis. (Publ. 4056.) 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 165 

SPECIAL PUBLICATION'S 

The Smithsonian Institution. 30 pp., 13 pis. (Piibl. 4048.) [Aug. 9] 1951. 
Classified list of Smithsonian publications available for distribution May 1, 

1952. Compiled by Lester E. Commerford. Gl pp. (Publ. 4081.) [May 

14] 1952. 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The editorial work of the National Museum continued under the 
immediate direction of the editor, John S. Lea. Gladys O. Visel, 
assistant editor, retired on February 29, 1952, after 351/2 years' serv- 
ice in the Institution. The Museum issued during the year 1 Annual 
Report, 24 Proceedings papers, 1 Bulletin, and 1 paper in the series 
Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, as fol- 
lows: 

ANNUAL REPORT 

Report on the progress and condition of the United States National Museum 
for the year ended June 30, 1951. iv+112 pp., 5 pis. [Jan. 10] 1952. 

PROCEEDINGS 
VOLUME 99 

Title page, table of contents, list of illustrations, and index. Pp. i-viii-1-541-573. 
Feb. 7, 1952. 

VOLUME 101 

No. 3287. New finds of Pleistocene jaguar skeletons, by Edward McGrady, H. T. 

Kirby-Smith, and Harvey Templeton. Pp. 497-511, pi. 16, figs. 97-102. Oct. 

16, 1951. 
No. 3288. An annotated checklist of the mosquitoes of the subgenus F inlay a 

(genus Aedes), by Kenneth L. Knight and Elizabeth N. Marks. Pp. 513-574. 

Feb. 12, 1952. 
No. 3289. A new subspecies of marine isopod from Texas, by Robert J. Menziea. 

Pp. 575-579, figs. 103 and 104. Aug. 3, 1951. 
No. 3290. Studies of certain apogonid fishes from the Indo-Pacific with descrip- 
tions of three new species, by Ernest A. Lachner. Pp. 581-610, pis. 17-19. 

Dec. 18, 1951. 

VOLUME 102 

No. 3291. Contributions to the morphology and the taxonomy of the Branchio- 
poda Notostraca, with special reference to the North American species, by 
Folke Linder. Pp. 1-69, pis. 1-7, figs. 1-31. June 27, 1952. 

No. 3292. A study of an intermediate snail host {TJiiara (jranifcra) of the 
Oriental lung fluke {Paragonimus) , by Robert J. Menzies. Pp. 71-116, pis. 
8 and 9, figs. 32-45. Feb. 26, 1952. 

No. 3293. Some marine asellote isopods from northern California, with de- 
scriptions of nine new species, by Robert J. Menzies. Pp. 117-150, figs. 46-71. 
May 29, 1952. 

No. 3294. Australasian stilt-legged files (Diptera : Tylidae) in the United States 
National Museum, by George C. Steyskal. Pp. IGl-lSO, figs. 72-74. Feb. 26, 
1952. 

No. 3295. Aphotaenius, a new genus of dung beetle (Coleoptera : Scarabaeidae), 
by O. L. Cartwright. Pp. 181-184. Mar. 7, 1952. 



166 ANNUAL REPORT SAIITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 2 

No. 3296. Preliminary analysis of the vertebrate fossil fauna of the Boysen 

Reservoir area, by Theodore E. White. Pp. 185-207, figs. 75-80. Apr. 2, 

1952. 
No. 3297. A new crayfish from Alabama, with notes on Procanibarus lecontei 

(Hagen), by Horton H. Hobbs, Jr. Pp. 209-219, figs. 81, 82. Mar. 27, 1952. 
No. 3298. Moths of the genera Mulona Walker and Lomuna, a new and closely 

related genus (Arctiidae: Lithosiinae), by William D. Field. Pp. 221-230, 

pis. 10 and 11. Mar. 19, 1952. 
No. 3299. A new species of commensal amphipod from a spiny lobster, by 

Clarence R. Shoemaker. Pp. 231-233, fig. 83. Mar. 27, 1952. 
No. 3300. A new genus of Central American milliped (family Euryuridae), 

with notes on the American genera, by Richard L. Hoffman. Pp. 235-243, 

fig. 84. Apr. 24, 1952. 
No. 3301. An emended diagnosis of the copepod genus Pupulina (Caligoida), 

with descriptions of new species and a redescription of the genotype, by Mildred 

Stratton Wilson. Pp. 245-263, pis. 12-15. Mar. 19, 1952. 
No. 3302. Echinoderms from the Marshall Islands, by Austin H. Clark. Pp. 

265-303. Mar. 27, 1952. 
No. 3303. A new species of insect of the order Protura, by Grace Glance. Pp. 

305-314, figs. 85 and 86. Apr. 25, 1952. 
No. 3304. New American cynipid wasps from galls, by Lewis H. Weld. Pp. 315- 

342, pis. 16 and 17. Apr. 24, 1952. 
No. 3305. Notes on mammals from the Nile Delta region of Egypt, by Henry W. 

Setzer. Pp. 343-369 Apr. 2, 1952. 
No. 3307. Schizostella, a new genus of brittle-star (Gorgonocephalidae), by 

Austin H. Clark. Pp. 451-454, pi. 40. Mar. 19, 1952. 
No. 3308. Moths of the genus Epeiromulona, a new genus of Lepidoptera, by 

William D. Field. Pp. 455-469, pis. 41-46. Apr. 25, 1952. 
No. 3309. A review of the stink bugs of the genus Mecidea, by R. I. Sailer. Pp. 

471-505, pis. 47 and 48, figs. 88 and 89. June 27, 1952. 
No. 3310. Review of the fishes of the blennioid genus Ecsenius, with descriptions 

of five new species, by Wilbert M. Chapman and Leonard P. Schultz. Pp. 507- 

528, figs. 90-96. Apr. 24, 1952. 

BULLETINS 

201. The Mysidacea of the United States National Museum, by Walter M. Tatter- 
sall. Pp. i-x + 1-292, 103 figs. Oct. 4, 1951. 

CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL HERBARIUM 

VOLUME 30 

Part 4. studies of Pacific Island plants, X. The Meliaceae of Fiji, Samoa, and 
Tonga, by A. C. Smith. Pp. i-iii + 469-522. May 6, 1952. 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

M. Helen Palmer, editor of the Bureau since 1939, retired on March 
31, 1952, after nearly 34 years' service in the Institution. During the 
year the Bureau issued 1 Annual Report, 4 Bulletins, and 1 paper in 
the series Publications of the Institute of Social Anthropology, as 
follows : 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 167 



ANNUAL REPORT 

Sixty-eighth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1950-51. ii 
+ 40 pp. [Feb. 201 1952. 

BULLETINS 

146. Chippewa child life and its cultural background, by Sister M. Inez Hilger. 
xiv -f 204 pp., 31 pis., 1 fig. Dec. 21, 1951. 

147. Journal of an expedition to the Mauvaises Torres and the Upix?r Missouri 
in 1850, by Thaddeus W. Culbertson. Edited by John Francis McDermott. 
viii+164 pp., 2 maps. Apr. 29, 1952. 

148. Arapaho child life and its cultural background, by Sister M. Inez Hilger. 
xv-f253 pp., 40 pis., 1 fig. June 26, 1952. 

149. Symposium on local diversity in Iroquois culture. Edited by William N. 
Fenton. v+187 pp., 21 figs. Dec. 17, 1951. 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY 

No. 14. The Indian caste of Peru, 1795-1940 : A population study based upon tax 
records and census reports, by George Kubler. vi+71 pp., 2 pis., 1 fig., 
20 maps. June 18. 1952. 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 

The opening of the Adams-Clement Collection. 23 pp., 7 pis. (Publ. 4055.) 
November 1951. 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE FREER GALLERY OF ART 

OCCASIONAL PAPERS 
VOLUME 1 

Title page and table of contents. 3 pp. (Publ. 4049.) [July 23] 1951. 

REPORT OF THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

The annual reports of the American Historical Association are 
transmitted by the Association to the Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution and are by him communicated to Congress, as provided 
by the act of incorporation of the Association. The following report 
volume was issued this year : 

Annual Report of the American Historical Association, 1950. Vol. 1, Proceedings. 
[Oct. 24] 1951. 

REPORT OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY, DAUGHTERS OF THE 
AMERICAN REVOLUTION 

The manuscript of the Fifty-fourth Annual Report of the National 
Society, Daughters of the American Revolution, was transmitted to 
Congress, in accordance with law, on February 11, 1952. 

226984—52 12 



168 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 

APPROPRIATION FOR PRINTING AND BINDING 

The year's printing and binding allotment from congressional ap- 
propriation was entirely obligated at the close of the year. The allot- 
ment for the coming fiscal year ending June 30, 1953, totals $92,320, 
divided as follows : 

General administration (Annual Report of the Board of Regents, with 

Appendix; Annual Report of the Secretary) $17,000 

National Museum 34, 945 

Bureau of American Ethnology 12,000 

Astrophysical Observatory 5, 000 

National Air Museum 500 

Service divisions (Annual Report of the American Historical Associa- 
tion ; blank forms ; binding ; print shop) 22, 875 



Total 92, 320 

Respectfully submitted. 

Paul H. Oehser, 
Chiefs EditoHal Division. 
Dr. A. Wetmore, 

Secretary^ Smithsonian Institution. 



Report of the Executive Committee of the Board of 
Regents of the Smithsonian Institution 

For the Year Ended June 30, 1952 

To the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution: 

Your executive committee respectfully submits the following report 
in relation to the funds of the Smithsonian Institution, together with 
a statement of the appropriations by Congress for the Government 
bureaus in the administrative charge of the Institution. 

SMITHSONIAN ENDOWMENT FUND 

The original bequest of James Smithson was £104,960 8s. 6d. — 
$508,318.46. Refunds of money expended in prosecution of the claim, 
freights, insurance, and other incidental expenses, together with pay- 
ment into the fund of the sum of £5,015, which had been withheld 
during the lifetime of Madame de la Batut, brought the fund to the 
amount of $550,000. 

Since the original bequest, the Institution has received gifts from 
various sources, the income from which may be used for the general 
work of the Institution. These, including the original bequest, plus 
savings, are listed below, together with the income for the present 
year. 

ENDOWMENT FUNDS 

(Income for the unrestricted use of the Institution) 

Partly deposited in the United States Treasury at 6 percent and partly invested 

in stocks, bonds, and other holdings 



Fund 



Investment 



Income present 
year 



Parent fund (original Smithson bequest, plus accumulated savings) 

Subsequent bequests, gifts, and other funds, partly deposited in the 
U. S. Treasury and partly invested in the consolidated fund: 

Avery, Robert S. and Lydia, bequest fund - 

Endowment fund 

Habel, Dr. S., bequest fund 

Uachenberg, George P. and Caroline, bequest fund 

Hamilton, James, bequest fund 

Henry, Caroline, bequest fund 

Hodgkins, Thomas G. (general gift) 

Porter, Henry Kirke, memorial fund - 

Rhees, William Jones, bequest fund 

Sanford, George H.. memorial fand_. 

Witberspoon, Thomas A., memorial fund 

Special fund... 



$728. 924. 14 



$43, 722. 58 



65, 548. 76 

371. 778. 10 

.M)0. 00 

4, 230. 45 

2. 924. 62 

1, 272. 20 

147, 864. 18 

301. 2:>:i. 66 

1, 087. 61 

2. 036. 41 

135, 746. 21 



2, 920. 40 

18. 383. 27 

30.00 

211.48 

171.22 

03.60 

8. 547. 28 

15. 0.'>6. 94 

60.26 

112.79 

6, 784. 73 

92. 00 



Total- 



1.024 242.20 



52, 43.'^. 93 



Grand total. 



1,753,166.34 j 



3, l.'^6. 51 



169 



170 



ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 1952 



The Institution holds also a number of endowment gifts, the in- 
come of each being restricted to specific use. These, plus accretions 
to date, are listed below, together with income for the present year. 



FuBd 



Investment 



Income pres- 
ent year 



Abbott, William L., fund, for investigations in biology.-. - 

Arthur, Tames, fund for investigations and study of the sun and annual 

lecture on same.. -- 

Bacon, Virginia Purdy, fund, for traveling scholarsliip to investigate 

fauna of countries other than the United States 

Baird, Lucy H., fund, for creating a memorial to Secretary Baird 

Barney, Alice Pike, memorial fund, for collecting of paintings and pastels 

and for encouragement of American artistic endeavor 

Barstow, Frederick I)., fund, for puichase of animals for Zoological Park 
Canfield Collection fund, for increase and care of the Canfield collection 

of minerals 

Casey, Thomas L., fund, for maintenance of the Casey collection and 

promotion of researches relating to Coleoptera 

Chamberlain, Francis Lea, fund, for increase and promotion of Isaac Lea 

collection of gems and mollusks 

Dykes, Charles, bequest fund, for support in financial research 

Eickemeyer, Florence Brevoort, fund, for preservation and exhibition of 

the photographic collection of Rudolph Eickemeyer, Jr 

HUlyer, Vii-gil, fund, for increase and care of Virgil Hillyer collection of 

lighting objects 

Hitchcock. Albert S., library fund, for care of the Hitchcock Agrostologi- 

cal Library 

Hodgkins fund, specific, for increase and diffusion of more exact knowl- 
edge in regard to nature and properties of atmospheric air 

HrdliCka, Ales and Marie, fund, to further researches in physical anthro- 
pology and publication in connection therevrith 

Hughes, Bruce, fund, to found Hughes alcove. .- 

Long, Annette and Edith C, fund, for upkeep and preservation of Long 

collection of embroideries, laces, and textiles 

Maxwell, Mary E., fund, for care and exhibition of Maxw'ell collection . 
Myer, Catherine Walden, fund, for purchase of first-class works of art 

for use and benefit of the National Collection of Fine Arts 

Noyes, Frank B., fund, for use in connection with the collection of dolls 

placed in the U. S. National Museum through the interest of Mr. and 

Mrs. Noyes .-. 

Pell, Cornelia Livingston, fund, for maintenance of Alfred Duane Pell 

collection 

Poore, Lucy T. and George W., fund, for general use of the Institution 

when principal amomits to $250,000 

Rathbun, Richard, memorial fund, for use of division of U. S. National 

Museum containing Crustacea 

Reid, Addison T., fund, for founding chair in biology, in memory of 

Asher Tunis 

Roebllng Collection fund, for care, improvement, and increase of Roe- 

bling collection of minerals 

Rollins, Miriam and William, fund, for investigations in physics and 

chemistry 

Smithsonian employees' retirement fund 

Springer, Frank, fund, for care and increase of the Springer collection and 

library 

Strong, Julia T>., bequest fund, for benefit of the National Collection of 

Fine Arts 

Walcott, Charles D. and Mary Vaux, research fund, for development of 

geological and paleontological studies and publishing results thereof 

Walcott, Mary Vaux, fund for publications in botany 

Younger, Helen Walcott, fund, held in trust 

Zerbee, Francos Brinckl^, fund, for endowment of aquaria 

Total 



$110,163.98 

42, 068. 52 

52. 700. 44 
25, 326. 11 

20, 426. 28 
1, 051. 66 

40, 231. 62 

13. 184. 81 

29, 621. 70 
45, 293. 53 

11, 433. 77 

6. 913. 21 

1, 659. 80 

100,000.00 

31, 758. 78 
20, 134. 51 

571.16 
20, 632. 28 

19, 939. 31 

1,010.59 

7,797.08 

143, 387. 14 

11,187.84 

30, 807. 63 

126, 950. 45 

98, 769. 57 
30,151.84 

18,863.34 

10, 517. 25 

421,512.60 

60, 888. 72 

58, 796. 92 

997. 77 



$5,434.88 

2, 102. 63 

2, 633. 99 
1, 265. 82 

854. 34 
52.58 

2. 010. 74 

554.83 

1, 480. 51 
1, 894. 10 

564.01 

345.53 

82.97 

6, 000. 00 

1, 512. 29 
1.006.35 

28.55 
1,031.20 

996.61 

21.37 

389.71 
7,081.80 

559. 19 

1, 650. 11 

6, 345. 11 

4,936.61 
1,592.24 

942.80 

525.67 

19, 955. 16 

1. 793. 75 
1,966.00 

49.87 



1,614,750.21 



77, 661. 32 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 171 

FREER GALLERY OF ART FUND 

Early in 1906, by deed of gift, Charles L. Freer, of Detroit, gave 
to the Institution his collection of Chinese and other Oriental objects 
of art, as well as paintings, etchings, and other works of art by 
Whistler, Thayer, Dewing, and other artists. Later he also gave 
funds for construction of a building to house the collection, and 
finally in his will, probated November 6, 1919, he provided stock 
and securities to the estimated value of $1,958,591.42, as an endowment 
fund for the operation of the Gallery. 

The above fund of Mr. Freer was almost entirely represented by 
20,465 shares of stock in Parke, Davis & Co. As this stock advanced 
in value, much of it was sold and the proceeds reinvested so that the 
fund now amounts to $6,752,796.55 in selected securities. 

SUMMARY OF ENDOWMENTS 

Invested endowment for general purposes $1, 753, 166. 34 

Invested endowment for specific purposes other than Freer 

endowment 1, 614, 750. 21 

Total Invested endowment other than Freer endowTiient__ 3, 367, 916. 55 
Freer invested endowment for specific purposes 6, 752, 796. 55 

Total invested endowment for all purposes 10, 120, 713. 10 

CLASSIFICATION OF INVESTMENTS 

Deposited in the U. S. Treasury at 6 percent per annum, as 

authorized in the U. S. Revi.sed Statutes, sec. 5591 $1, 000, 000. 00 

Investments other than Freer endowment (cost 
or market value at date acquired) : 

Bonds $677,763.74 

Stocks 1 , 566, 862. 25 

Real estate and first-mortgage notes 13, 610. 03 

Uninvested capital 109, 680. 53 

2, 367, 916. 55 

Total investments other than Freer endowment 3, 367, 916. 55 

Investments of Freer endowment (cost or market 
value at date acquired) : 

Bonds S3, 682, 580. 68 

Stocks 3, 070, 009. 40 

Uninvested capital 206. 47 

6, 752, 796. 55 



Total investments 10, 120,713. 10 



226984—52 13 



172 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 2 

CASH BALANCES, RECEIPTS, AND DISBURSEMENTS DURING 

FISCAL YEAR 1952 ' 

Cash balance on hand June 30, 1951 $536, 209. 02 

Receipts, other than Freer endowment: 

Income from investments $182,036.91 

Royalties on sale of publications 11, 183. 45 

Gifts and contributions 137, 938. 19 

Sales of publications 39,082. 13 

Miscellaneous 15, 653. 73 

Proceeds from real-estate holdings 1, 458. 44 

Proceeds from other stocks and bonds (net) 62, 600. 71 

Payroll withholdings and refunds of advances 

(net) 1,650. 18 

Total receipts other than Freer endowment 451, 603. 74 

Receipts from Freer endowment: 

Interest and dividends $299, 451. 42 

Total receipts from Freer endowment 299, 451. 42 

Total 1,287,264. 18 

Disbursements other than Freer endowment: 

Administration $78, 482. 08 

Publications 54, 862. 42 

Library 615. 78 

Custodian fees and servicing securities 3, 141. 93 

Miscellaneous 4, 611. 95 

Researches 113, 942. 68 

S. I. Retirement System 3, 284. 76 

U. S. Government and other contracts (net)__ 4, 925. 34 

Purchase and sale of securities (net) 122, 054. 29 

Total disbursements other than Freer endov%'ment 385, 921. 23 

Disbursements from Freer endowment: 

Salaries $106, 307. 29 

Purchases for collections 153, 457. 19 

Custodian fees and servicing securities 10, 962. 54 

Miscellaneous 22, 493. 26 

Purchase and sale of securities (net) 97, 058. 88 

Total disbursements from Freer endowment 390, 279. 16 

Total disbursements 776, 200. 39 

Cash balance June 30, 1952 511, 063. 79 

Total 1,287,264. 18 

1 This statement does not Include Qovemment appropriations under the administrative charge of the 
Institution. 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COI^tMITTEE 173 

ASSETS 
Cash: 

United States Treasury current 

account $299, 379. 74 

In banks and on hand 211, G88. 05 



511,063. 79 
Less uninvested endowment funds. _ 109, 887. GO 

$401,176.79 

Travel and other advances 15, 724. 39 

Cash invested (U. S. Treasury notes) 600, 778. 01 

$1, 017, 679. 19 

Investments — at book value: 
Endowment funds: 

Freer Gallery of Art: 

Stocks and bonds. _ $6, 752, 590. 08 
Uninvested capital. 206. 47 

6, 752, 796. 55 

Investments at book value other 
than Freer: 

Stocks and bonds $2, 244, 625. 99 

Real-estate and mortgage 

notes 13, 610. 03 

Uninvested capital 109, 680. 53 

Special deposit in U. S. 
Treasury at 6 percent in- 
terest 1, 000, 000. 00 

3, 367, 916. 55 

10, 120, 713. 10 



11, 138,392. 29 
UNEXPENDED FUNDS AND ENDOWMENTS 

Unexpended funds: 

Income from Freer Gallery of Art endowment $421, 279. 02 

Income from other endowments: 

Restricted $237, 044. 08 

General 111, 490. 84 



348, 534. 92 

Gifts and grants 247, 865. 25 



1, 017, 679. 19 



Endowment funds: 

Freer Gallery of Art $6, 752, 796. 55 

Other: 

Restricted $1, 614, 750. 21 

General 1, 753, 166. 34 

3, 367, 916. 55 



10, 120, 713. 10 



11, 138,392.29 



174 ANNUAL REPORT SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 195 2 

The practice of maintaining savings accounts in several of the Wash- 
ington banks and trust companies has been continued during the past 
year, and interest on these deposits amounted to $822.31. 

In many instances, deposits are made in banks for convenience in 
collection of checks, and later such funds are withdrawn and deposited 
in the United States Treasury. Disbursement of funds is made by 
check signed by the Secretary of the Institution and drawn on the 
United States Treasury. 

The foregoing report relates only to the private funds of the Institu- 
tion. 

The Institution gratefully acknowledges gifts from the following : 

Laura D. Barney, additional funds for the Alice Pike Barney collection of 
paintings and pastels, etc. 

Laura "Welsh Casey Estate, for addition to the Thomas Lincoln Casey fund. 

Charles Dykes Estate, for use in financial research. 

Joint Committee on Invertebrate Paleontology, through Raymond C. Moore, 
for illustrations fund for Foraminifera. 

E. R. Fenimore Johnson, additional funds for researches in underwater photog- 
raphy. 

E. A. Link, Link Aviation Corporation, for field exi>enses in historical research 
(marine archeology). 

Frank B. Noyes Estate, for use in connection with the collection of dolls placed 
in the U. S. National Museum through the interest of Mr. and Mrs. Noyes. 

Wenner-Gren Foundation, for Graham publication fund. 

Wenner-Gren Foundation, for work on the archeology of Mexico. 

Wenner-Gren Foundation, for anthropological research. 

The following appropriations were made by Congress for the Gov- 
ernment bureaus under the administrative charge of the Smithsonian 
Institution for the fiscal year 1952 : 

Salaries and expenses $2,553,200.00 

National Zoological Park 620, 800. 00 

In addition, funds were transferred from other departments of the 
Government for expenditure under the direction of the Smithsonian 
Institution as follows: 

International Information and Educational Activities (transferred 

to the Smithsonian Institution from the State Department) $42,000.00 

Working Fimd (transferred to the Smithsonian Institution by the 

Institute of Inter-American Affairs) 45,705.00 

Working Funds, transferred from the National Park Service, In- 
terior Department, for archeological investigations in river 
basins throughout tlie United States 157, 803. 00 

The Institution also administers a trust fund for partial support of 
the Canal Zone Biological Area, located on Barro Colorado Island in 
the Canal Zone. 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMIVHTTEE 175 

The report of the audit of the Smithsonian private funds follows : 

Washington, D, C, September 9, 1952 
To THE Board of Regents, 

Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington 25, D. C: 

We have examined the accounts of the Smithsonian Institution relative to its 
private endowment funds and gifts (but excluding the National Gallery of Art 
and other departments, bureaus or operations administered by the Institution 
under Federal appropriations) for the year ended June 30, 1952. Our examina- 
tion was made in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards, and 
accordingly included such tests of the accounting records and such other audit- 
ing procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. 

The Institution maintains its accounts on a cash basis and does not accrue 
income and expenses. Land, buildings, furniture, equipment, works of art, living 
and other specimens and certain sundry property are not included in the accounts 
of the Institution. 

In our opinion, the accompanying financial statements present fairly the posi- 
tion of the private funds and the cash and investments thereof of the Smithsonian 
Institution at June 30, 1952 (excluding the National Gallery of Art and other 
departments, bureaus or operations administered by the Institution under Federal 
appropriations) and the cash receipts and disbursements for the year then ended, 
in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles applied on a basis 
consistent with that of the preceding year. 

Peat, Marwick, Mitchell & Co. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Robert V. Fleming, 
Vannevar Bush, 
Clarence Cannon, 

Executive Coimnittee. 

o